Does adolescent perception of difficulty in getting cigarettes deter experimentation?
ABSTRACT Considerable controversy surrounds tobacco control emphasis on youth-access-to-tobacco laws, as there is limited evidence that such enforcement reduces youth smoking. In California, access-law enforcement increased substantially in 1996 compared to earlier in the decade.
Two longitudinal cohorts of adolescent never smokers from the large, population-based California Tobacco Surveys of 1993 and 1996 were followed-up 3 years later (1993-1996 [n = 1764] and 1996-1999 [n = 2119]). We examined transition to any smoking by follow-up with adolescent perception that cigarettes are easy or hard to get, during periods with less and more access law enforcement.
Transition to any smoking by follow-up among 12- to 15-year-old never smokers was identical in the 1993-1996 cohort, regardless of whether they perceived cigarettes as hard or easy to get (about 38%), but was lower in the 1996-1999 cohort for those who perceived that cigarettes were hard (25.9%) vs. easy (36.1%) to get. This differential effect was confirmed in multivariate analyses that adjusted for demographics, cohort, and other known predictors of adolescent smoking.
Increased enforcement of access laws may help protect young adolescents from experimenting with cigarettes by strengthening societal anti-tobacco norms. Such enforcement appears warranted as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To examine associations between the perceived smoking environment and smoking initiation among urban multi-ethnic adolescent girls in New York City. Self-report surveys completed in grades 7, 8, and 9 assessed girls' (n = 858) smoking initiation, and perceived smoking environment (family smoking, friends' smoking, smoking norms, and cigarette availability). Carbon monoxide breath samples were collected from girls using a variation of the bogus pipeline procedure. Differences were found in smoking prevalence with white girls reporting the highest prevalence of smoking at baseline and greatest increase in smoking prevalence from seventh to eighth grade. Black girls reported an initial increase in smoking prevalence from seventh to eighth grade followed by a decrease from eighth to ninth grade. Family smoking, friends' smoking, smoking norms, and cigarette availability were all associated with smoking initiation at eighth grade but only friends' smoking was associated with smoking initiation at ninth grade. Few ethnic differences were found in risk factors at baseline and racial/ethnic group did not modify associations between risk and smoking initiation. Urban adolescent girls of different racial/ethnic backgrounds had similar perceptions of the smoking environment. Despite the similarity of risk factors across racial/ethnic groups, urban white girls are at increased risk to initiate smoking. Preventive interventions that target girls' perceived smoking environment during early adolescence should be effective across ethnic groups.Journal of Adolescent Health 05/2006; 38(4):369-75. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite decades of research surrounding determinants of alcohol and tobacco (A&T) use among adolescents, built environment influences have only recently been explored. This study used ordinal regression on 205 Latino adolescents to explore the influence of the built environment (proximity to A&T retailers) on A&T use, while controlling for recognized social predictors. The sample was 45% foreign-born. A&T use was associated with distance from respondents' home to the nearest A&T retailer (-), acculturation (+), parents' consistent use of contingency management (-), peer use of A&T (+), skipping school (+), attending school in immediate proximity to the US/Mexico border (+), and the interaction between the distance to the nearest retailer and parents' consistent use of contingency management (+). The association between decreasing distance to the nearest A&T retailer and increased A&T use in Latino adolescents reveals an additional risk behavior determinant in the US-Mexico border region.Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 11/2009; 12(5):626-33. · 1.16 Impact Factor