Nucleotide binding to DNA gyrase causes loss of DNA wrap.
ABSTRACT DNA gyrase negatively supercoils DNA in a reaction coupled to the binding and hydrolysis of ATP. Limited supercoiling can be achieved in the presence of the non-hydrolysable ATP analogue, 5'-adenylyl beta,gamma-imidodiphosphate (ADPNP). In order to negatively supercoil DNA, gyrase must wrap a length of DNA around itself in a positive sense. In previous work, the effect of ADPNP on the gyrase-DNA interaction has been assessed but has produced conflicting results; the aim of this work was to resolve this conflict. We have probed the wrapping of DNA around gyrase in the presence and in the absence of ADPNP using direct observation by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We confirm that gyrase indeed generates a significant curvature in DNA in the absence of nucleotide and we show that the addition of ADPNP leads to a complete loss of wrap. These results have been corroborated using a DNA relaxation assay involving topoisomerase I. We have re-analysed previous hydroxyl-radical footprinting and crystallography data, and highlight the fact that the gyrase-DNA complex is surprisingly asymmetric in the absence of nucleotide but is symmetric in the presence of ADPNP. We suggest a revised model for the conformation of DNA bound to the enzyme that is fully consistent with these AFM data, in which a closed loop of DNA is stabilised by the enzyme in the absence of ADPNP and is lost in the presence of nucleotide.
Article: Oligomerization and DNA binding of Ler, a master regulator of pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ler is a DNA-binding, oligomerizable protein that regulates pathogenicity islands in enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Ler counteracts the transcriptional silencing effect of H-NS, another oligomerizable nucleoid-associated protein. We studied the oligomerization of Ler in the absence and presence of DNA by atomic force microscopy. Ler forms compact particles with a multimodal size distribution corresponding to multiples of 3-5 units of Ler. DNA wraps around Ler particles that contain more than 15-16 Ler monomers. The resulting shortening of the DNA contour length is in agreement with previous measurements of the length of DNA protected by Ler in footprinting assays. We propose that the repetition unit corresponds to the number of monomers per turn of a tight helical Ler oligomer. While the repressor (H-NS) and anti-repressor (Ler) have similar DNA-binding domains, their oligomerization domains are unrelated. We suggest that the different oligomerization behavior of the two proteins explains the opposite results of their interaction with the same or proximal regions of DNA.Nucleic Acids Research 09/2012; · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: The ancestral role of ATP hydrolysis in type II topoisomerases: prevention of DNA double-strand breaks.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Type II DNA topoisomerases (topos) catalyse changes in DNA topology by passing one double-stranded DNA segment through another. This reaction is essential to processes such as replication and transcription, but carries with it the inherent danger of permanent double-strand break (DSB) formation. All type II topos hydrolyse ATP during their reactions; however, only DNA gyrase is able to harness the free energy of hydrolysis to drive DNA supercoiling, an energetically unfavourable process. A long-standing puzzle has been to understand why the majority of type II enzymes consume ATP to support reactions that do not require a net energy input. While certain type II topos are known to 'simplify' distributions of DNA topoisomers below thermodynamic equilibrium levels, the energy required for this process is very low, suggesting that this behaviour is not the principal reason for ATP hydrolysis. Instead, we propose that the energy of ATP hydrolysis is needed to control the separation of protein-protein interfaces and prevent the accidental formation of potentially mutagenic or cytotoxic DSBs. This interpretation has parallels with the actions of a variety of molecular machines that catalyse the conformational rearrangement of biological macromolecules.Nucleic Acids Research 04/2011; 39(15):6327-39. · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: Guiding strand passage: DNA-induced movement of the gyrase C-terminal domains defines an early step in the supercoiling cycle.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: DNA gyrase catalyzes ATP-dependent negative supercoiling of DNA in a strand passage mechanism. A double-stranded segment of DNA, the T-segment, is passed through the gap in a transiently cleaved G-segment by coordinated closing and opening of three protein interfaces in gyrase. T-segment capture is thought to be guided by the C-terminal domains of the GyrA subunit of gyrase that wrap DNA around their perimeter and cause a DNA-crossing with a positive handedness. We show here that the C-terminal domains are in a downward-facing orientation in the absence of DNA, but swing up and rotate away from the gyrase body when DNA binds. The upward movement of the C-terminal domains is an early event in the catalytic cycle of gyrase that is triggered by binding of a G-segment, and first contacts of the DNA with the C-terminal domains, and contributes to T-segment capture and subsequent strand passage.Nucleic Acids Research 08/2011; 39(22):9681-94. · 8.03 Impact Factor