Article

Substantial migration of SVZ cells to the cortex results in the generation of new neurons in the excitotoxically damaged immature rat brain.

Medical Histology, Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Neuroscience Institute, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.84). 07/2008; 38(2):170-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcn.2008.02.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mammalian SVZ progenitors continuously generate new neurons in the olfactory bulb. After injury, changes in SVZ cell number suggest injury-induced migration. Studies that trace the migration of SVZ precursors into neurodegenerating areas are lacking. Previously, we showed a decrease in BrdU+SVZ cells following excitotoxic damage to the immature rat cortex. Here, we demonstrate that NMDA-induced injury forces endogenous Cell Tracker Green (CTG) labeled VZ/SVZ precursors out of the SVZ into the neurodegenerating cortex. CTG+/Nestin+/Filamin A+ precursors are closely associated with vimentin+/GFAP+/GLAST+ filaments and express both chemokine receptor CXCR4 and Robo1. In the cortex, SVZ-derived progenitors show a progressive expression of developing, migrating and mature neurons and glial markers. CTG+/GFAP+ astrocytes greatly outnumber CTG+/MAP2+/NeuN+ neurons. SVZ-derived progenitors differentiate into both tbr1+ cortical glutamatergic neurons and calretinin+ interneurons. But, there is little integration of these neurons into the existing circuitry, as seen by Fluorogold retrograde tracing from the internal capsule.

1 Bookmark
 · 
184 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is a well defined migratory pathway for precursors of olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons. Throughout the RMS an intense astroglial matrix surrounds the migratory cells. However, it is not clear to what extent the astroglial matrix participates in migration. Here, we have analyzed the migratory behavior of neuroblasts cultured on monolayers of astrocytes isolated from areas that are permissive (RMS and OB) and nonpermissive (cortex and adjacent cortical areas) to migration. Our results demonstrate robust neuroblast migration when RMS-explants are cultured on OB or RMS-astrocytes, in contrast to their behavior on astroglia derived from nonpermissive areas. These differences, mediated by astrocyte-derived nonsoluble factors, are related to the overexpression of extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules, as revealed by real-time qRT-PCR. Our results show that astroglia heterogeneity could play a significant role in migration within the RMS and in cell detachment in the OB.
    Glia 08/2009; 58(2):218-30. · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the principal neurogenic niche present in the adult non-human mammalian brain. Neurons generated in the SVZ migrate along the rostral migratory stream to reach the olfactory bulb. Brain injuries stimulate SVZ neurogenesis and direct migration of new progenitors to the sites of injury. To date, cortical injury-induced adult SVZ neurogenesis in mice remains ambiguous and migration of neural progenitors to the site of injury has not been studied in detail. Here we report that aspiration lesion in the motor cortex induces a transient, but significant increase in the proliferation as well as neurogenesis in the SVZ. New neural progenitors migrate ectopically to the injured area with the assistance of blood vessels and reactive astrocytes. The SVZ origin of these progenitors was further confirmed using lentiviral transduction. In addition, we show that astrocyte-assisted ectopic migration is regulated by CXCR4/SDF-1 signaling pathway. Finally, upon reaching the lesion area, these progenitors differentiate mainly into glial cells and, to a lesser extent, mature neurons. These data provide a detailed account of the changes occurring in the SVZ and the cortex following lesion, and indicate the potential of the endogenous neural progenitors in cortical repair.
    Stem Cell Research 06/2013; 11(3):965-977. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neural precursor cells (NPCs) are activated in central nervous system injury. However, despite being multipotential, their progeny differentiates into astrocytes rather than neurons in situ. We have investigated the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the generation of non-neurogenic conditions. Cultured mouse subventricular zone NPCs exposed to differentiating conditions for 4 days generated approximately 50% astrocytes and 30% neuroblasts. Inhibition of EGFR with 4-(3-chloroanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline significantly increased the number of neuroblasts and decreased that of astrocytes. The same effects were observed upon treatment with the metalloprotease inhibitor galardin, N-[(2R)-2-(hydroxamidocarbonylmethyl)-4-methylpentanoyl]-L-tryptophan methylamide (GM 6001), which prevented endogenous transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) release. These results suggested that metalloprotease-dependent EGFR-ligand shedding maintained EGFR activation and favored gliogenesis over neurogenesis. Using a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM-17) small interference RNAs transfection of NPCs, ADAM-17 was identified as the metalloprotease involved in cell differentiation in these cultures. In vivo experiments revealed a significant upregulation of ADAM-17 mRNA and de novo expression of ADAM-17 protein in areas of cortical injury in adult mice. Local NPCs, identified by nestin staining, expressed high levels of ADAM-17, as well as TGF-α and EGFR, the three molecules necessary to prevent neurogenesis and promote glial differentiation in vitro. Chronic local infusions of GM6001 resulted in a notable increase in the number of neuroblasts around the lesion. These results indicate that, in vivo, the activation of a metalloprotease, most probably ADAM-17, initiates EGFR-ligand shedding and EGFR activation in an autocrine manner, preventing the generation of new neurons from NPCs. Inhibition of ADAM-17, the limiting step in this sequence, may contribute to the generation of neurogenic niches in areas of brain damage.
    Stem Cells 08/2011; 29(10):1628-39. · 7.70 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
104 Downloads
Available from
Jun 2, 2014