Sodium late current blockers in ischemia reperfusion: Is the bullet magic?
ABSTRACT We describe the discovery of the first selective, potent, and voltage-dependent inhibitor of the late current mediated by the cardiac sodium channel Na V1.5. The compound 3,4-dihydro- N-[(2 S)-3-[(2-methoxyphenyl)thio]-2-methylpropyl]-2 H-(3 R)-1,5-benzoxathiepin-3-amine, 2a (F 15845), was identified from a novel family of 3-amino-1,5-benzoxathiepine derivatives. The late sodium current inhibition and antiischemic effects of 2a were studied in various models in vitro and in vivo. In a rabbit model of ischemia-reperfusion, 2a exhibited more potent antiischemic effects than reference compounds KC 12291, ranolazine, and ivabradine. Thus, after a single administration, 2a almost abolished ST segment elevation in response to a transient coronary occlusion. Further, the antiischemic activity of 2a is maintained over a wide range of doses and is not associated with any hemodynamic changes, contrary to conventional antiischemic agents. The unique pharmacological profile of 2a opens new and promising opportunities for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The persistent sodium current is involved in myocardial ischaemia and is selectively inhibited by the newly described 3-(R)-[3-(2-methoxyphenylthio-2-(S)-methylpropyl]amino-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,5-benzoxathiepine bromhydrate (F 15845). Here, we describe the pharmacological profile of F 15845 against the effects of hypoxia in femoral arteries in vitro. Isometric tension measurement of rat isolated femoral arteries was used to characterize the protective effect of F 15845 against contraction of the vessels induced by veratrine (100 microg.mL(-1)) or hypoxia. Rat femoral artery expressed the Na(v)1.5 channel isoform. When exposed to veratrine (100 microg.mL(-1)), vessels developed a rapid and strong contraction that was abolished by both absence of sodium and blockade of the Na(+)/Ca(++) exchanger by KB-R7943 (10 and 32 micromol.L(-1)) or treatment with F 15845. When used before veratrine exposure, the potency of F 15845 depended on the extracellular K(+) concentration (IC(50)= 11 and 0.77 micromol.L(-1) for 5 and 20 mmol.L(-1) KCl, respectively), whereas its potency was unaffected by extracellular K(+) concentration when given after veratrine. F 15845 did not affect either KCl (80 mmol.L(-1)) or phenylephrine-induced femoral artery contraction. Moreover, endothelium disruption did not affect the protective effect of F 15845 against veratrine-induced femoral artery contraction, suggesting a mechanism of action dependent on smooth muscle cells. Finally, F 15845 prevented in a concentration-dependent manner rat femoral artery contraction induced by hypoxia. F 15845, a selective blocker of the persistent sodium current prevented vascular contraction induced by hypoxic conditions.British Journal of Pharmacology 09/2010; DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00912.x · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This manuscript describes a well-defined pincer-Rh catalyst for C-S cross-coupling reactions. (POCOP)Rh(H)(Cl) (1) serves as an active pre-catalyst for the coupling of aryl chlorides and bromides with aryl and alkyl thiols under reasonable conditions (3% mol cat., 110 °C, 2-24 h, >90% yield). For select substrates, >90% yields were obtained with catalyst loading as low as 0.1%. Key mechanistic intermediates have been isolated and fully characterized, including (POCOP)Rh(Ph)(SPh) (6a) and (POCOP)Rh(SPh2) (6b). The aryl/bis(phosphinite) (POCOP)Rh system has been shown to favor aryl-thiolate reductive elimination at elevated temperatures and in some cases at RT, compared with the analogous diarylamido/bis(phosphine) (PNP)Rh pincer system. Concerted reductive elimination has been studied with 6a directly and in the presence of aryl bromide and aryl chloride traps. This investigation demonstrates a clear rate dependence on aryl chloride concentration during catalysis, a dependence that is absent when using aryl bromides. The rate of catalysis is dramatically reduced or brought to zero for ortho-tolyl halides, which can be traced to slower C-S coupling and slower carbon-halogen oxidative addition for ortho-substituted aryls. The influence of the sterics in the thiol component is less straightforward. The S-H oxidative addition product (POCOP)Rh(H)(SPh) (16) has been fully characterized and its reac-tivity has been examined, resulting in the isolation of the sodium-thiolate adduct (POCOP)Rh(NaSPh) (19). The solid-state structure of 19 shows Na interactions not only with sulfur, but also with a neighboring Rh and the chelating aryl carbon of the pincer framework. The reactivity of 16 and 19 indicates that these potential side products should not hinder catalysis.Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2014; 136(42). DOI:10.1021/ja505576g · 11.44 Impact Factor
01/2014; 3:245. DOI:10.12688/f1000research.5544.1