Zhu, H., Han, J., Xiao, J. Q. & Jin, Y. Uptake, translocation and accumulation of manufactured iron oxide nanoparticles by pumpkin plants. J. Environ. Monitor. 10, 713-717

University of Delaware, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Newark, Delaware, USA.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring (Impact Factor: 2.18). 07/2008; 10(6):713-7. DOI: 10.1039/b805998e
Source: PubMed


Rapid development and application of nanomaterials and nanotechnology make assessment of their potential health and environmental impacts on humans, non-human biota, and ecosystems imperative. Here we show that pumpkin plants (Cucurbita maxima), grown in an aqueous medium containing magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, can absorb, translocate, and accumulate the particles in the plant tissues. These results suggest that plants, as an important component of the environmental and ecological systems, need to be included when evaluating the overall fate, transport and exposure pathways of nanoparticles in the environment.

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    • "Although in remediation activities, terrestrial macrophytes could be directly exposed and potentially affected by nZVI, effect data are still scarce despite the current use of this technique (Li et al., 2015). Zhu et al. (2008) found that Cucurbita maxima grown in an aqueous medium absorbed, translocated and accumulated Fe 3 O 4 ENPs, but this event did not occur with Phaseolus limensis Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: "
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    ABSTRACT: Potential environmental impacts of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) can be understood taking into consideration phytotoxicity. We reported on the effects of ionic (FeCl3), micro- and nano-sized zerovalent iron (nZVI) about the development of three macrophytes: Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. Four toxicity indicators (seed germination, seedling elongation, germination index and biomass) were assessed following exposure to each iron concentration interval: 1.29-1570mg/L (FeCl3), 1.71-10.78mg/L (micro-sized iron) and 4.81-33,560mg/L (nano-iron). Exposure effects were also observed by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that no significant phytotoxicity effects could be detected for both micro- and nano-sized zerovalent irons, including field nanoremediation concentrations. Biostimulation effects such as an increased seedling length and biomass production were detected at the highest exposure concentrations. Ionic iron showed slight toxicity effects only at 1570mg/L and, therefore, no median effect concentrations were determined. By microscopy, ENPs were not found in palisade cells or xylem. Apparently, aggregates of nZVI were found inside S. alba and S. saccharatum, although false positives during sample preparation cannot be excluded. Macroscopically, black spots and coatings were detected on roots of all species especially at the most concentrated treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.07.024 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "It is known that some plant species are hyperaccumulators of platinum, but information on the bioaccumulation of Pt nanoparticles is lacking. Zhu et al. (2008) showed that iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 ) were taken up by Cucurbita maxima roots and translocated through the plant tissues while no uptake or transport of iron oxide nanoparticles was observed for Phaseolus limensis. We reported accumulation of iron o x i d e n a n o p a r t i c l e s b y L e p i d i u m s a t i v u m (Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly used, and concerns about their possible adverse effects are being voiced as well. However, little is known about the fates of NPs released to the environment. The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the ability of Sinapis alba and Lepidium sativum plants to take up platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) and translocate them to aboveground organs, (ii) compare the accumulation efficiency of different forms of platinum and (iii) identify the forms in which platinum is stored in plant tissues. Plants were cultivated on medium supplemented with different concentrations of Pt-NPs and [Pt(NH3)4](NO3)2. Platinum content in plants was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For the identification of the presence of Pt-NPs in plant tissues, gamma spectrometry following iron irradiation was applied. It was found that L. sativum and S. alba are tolerant to applied concentrations of Pt-NPs and have an ability to take up platinum from the medium and translocate it to aboveground organs. The highest concentration of platinum was observed in plant roots (reaching 8.7 g kg−1 for S. alba). We tentatively conclude that platinum is accumulated as nanoparticles. The obtained results suggest future application of plants for phytoremediation and recovery of noble metal nanoparticles.
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 04/2015; 226(4). DOI:10.1007/s11270-015-2381-y · 1.55 Impact Factor
    • "There is evidence that other NPs (such as ZnO-NPs) up to 20 nm are taken up by plant cells through plasmodesmata and through endocytosis (Dietz & Herth, 2011). Indeed, Zhu et al. (2008) used magnetrometry to quantify the uptake and transport of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 )-NPs in Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) plants and transmission electron microscopy has shown that ZnO-NPs pass through the epidermis and cortex of Lolium perenne L. (ryegrass) roots (Lin & Xing, 2008). Current knowledge regarding silver NPs is still in its infancy, however, with information largely drawn from studies of NPs in their pristine form rather than from their transformed products which are actually found in the environment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Silver nanoparticles (NPs) are used in more consumer products than any other nanomaterial and their release into the environment is unavoidable. Of primary concern is the wastewater stream in which most silver NPs are transformed to silver sulfide NPs (Ag2S-NPs) before being applied to agricultural soils within biosolids. While Ag2S-NPs are assumed to be biologically inert, nothing is known of their effects on terrestrial plants. The phytotoxicity of Ag and its accumulation was examined in short-term (24 h) and longer-term (2-week) solution culture experiments with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exposed to Ag2S-NPs (0-20 mg Ag L(-1)), metallic Ag-NPs (0-1.6 mg Ag L(-1)), or ionic Ag (AgNO3; 0-0.086 mg Ag L(-1)). Although not inducing any effects during 24-h exposure, Ag2S-NPs reduced growth by up to 52% over a 2-week period. This toxicity did not result from their dissolution and release of toxic Ag(+) in the rooting medium, with soluble Ag concentrations remaining below 0.001 mg Ag L(-1). Rather, Ag accumulated as Ag2S in the root and shoot tissues when plants were exposed to Ag2S-NPs, consistent with their direct uptake. Importantly, this differed from the form of Ag present in tissues of plants exposed to AgNO3. For the first time, our findings have shown that Ag2S-NPs exert toxic effects through their direct accumulation in terrestrial plant tissues. These findings need to be considered to ensure high yield of food crops, and to avoid increasing Ag in the food chain.
    Nanotoxicology 02/2015; 9(8):1-9. DOI:10.3109/17435390.2014.999139 · 6.41 Impact Factor
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