Uptake, translocation, and accumulation of manufactured iron oxide nanoparticles by pumpkin plants
ABSTRACT Rapid development and application of nanomaterials and nanotechnology make assessment of their potential health and environmental impacts on humans, non-human biota, and ecosystems imperative. Here we show that pumpkin plants (Cucurbita maxima), grown in an aqueous medium containing magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, can absorb, translocate, and accumulate the particles in the plant tissues. These results suggest that plants, as an important component of the environmental and ecological systems, need to be included when evaluating the overall fate, transport and exposure pathways of nanoparticles in the environment.
SourceAvailable from: Irawwa Basavaraj Gokak[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The increasing application and use of nanoparticles are directly related to their release in the environment. The interactions of nanoparticles with plants and other organisms have been poorly studied. The studies on investigation of possible positive and phytotoxic effects of nanoparticles on crop plants are rare. In the present investigation an attempt has been made to assess the effect of Zn and nZn on the seed germination and seedling growth of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.)Verdc. The treatment included four concentrations of both Zn and n Zn (2, 10, 50 and 100 ppm) and Control (Without Zn and nZn). Zn and nZn didn't show any effect on the germination percentage but delay in the germination was observed, the differences in other parameter such as Mean Germination Time (MGT), Seedling vigor, dry and wet biomass of seedling, root and shoot were also observed. The lowest and the highest MGT were observed at the concentration 50 ppm of Zn and100ppm of nZn respectively. The lower concentration of Zn (2 ppm) showed the highest MGT, the same was observed in the concentration (10 ppm) of nZn. The effect of Zn and nZn treatment had no significant impact over the root and shoot elongation. Root length decreased in all treatments indicating the negative impact of treatment over the root elongation however the shoot length increased 50ppm Zn, 2 and 50 ppm nZn.
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ABSTRACT: Seeds and seedlings of soft wheat (Triticum vulgare Vill.) were used to study seed germination, leaf elongation, and the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids) as affected by five concentrations of iron-containing nanoparticles (NP): spherical Fe0 NP with the diameter of 80 ± 5 nm and the magnetite Fe3O4 NP measuring 50–80 nm in width and 4–10 nm in height. The effects of FeSO4 solutions were also tested for comparison. The parameters examined varied as a function of the exogenous agent applied, the agent concentration, and the exposure duration. The highest sensitivity of seedlings was observed in the presence of increasing concentrations of iron (II) sulfate in the nutrient medium. This was evident from the decrease in seed germination percentage, inhibition of leaf growth, and the diminished content of photosynthetic pigments. The apparent toxicity of iron nanoforms varied depending on the parameter examined. (1) The strongest inhibition of germination was exerted by Fe0 NP (toxicity assessed from germination percentage was 3.3% higher with Fe0 NP than with magnetite NP); (2) the inhibition of leaf elongation on the 4th day after germination was most evident in the presence of Fe0 NP (a 12% stronger inhibition in the presence of Fe0 NP than in the presence of magnetite NP), whereas on the 7th day the inhibition was most pronounced with magnetite NP (a 9% stronger inhibition in the presence of Fe3SO4 NP than in the presence of Fe0 NP); (3) the lowest total content of photosynthetic pigments on the 4th day of seedling growth was noted in the presence of magnetite NP (8% lower in the presence of Fe3SO4 NP than in the presence of Fe0 NP), whereas on the 7th day the lowest pigment pool was observed in the presence Fe0 NP (a 3% reduction compared to that in the presence of magnetite NP). The highest content of photosynthetic pigments was recorded in the presence of 0.125 and 0.001 g/L of Fe0 NP, 0.5 g/L and 1 μg/L of Fe3O4 NP, and 1 mg/L FeSO4.Russian Journal of Plant Physiology 07/2014; 61(4):564-569. DOI:10.1134/S1021443714040128 · 0.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the uptake of cerium (Ce) dioxide nanoparticles (NPs) by hydroponically grown wheat, pumpkin and sunflower plants. The presence of plant roots in nutrient solution led to a substantial increase in the dissolution of CeO2-NP compared to plant-free medium. Experiments with Zr/CeOx-NP revealed that Ce was not only taken up in the form of NPs, but simultaneously to a significant degree also as dissolved Ce(iii) ions, which then re-precipitated in the form of CeO2-NPs inside the leaves. The contribution of dissolved Ce uptake was particularly large for particles smaller than 10 nm due to their higher dissolution rate. Our data also indicate that the translocation of Ce resulting from NP-root-exposure is species dependent. When Ce was supplied as dissolved ions, sunflower had the highest capacity of Ce-ion accumulation inside the leaves, while there was no significant difference between pumpkin and wheat. We found no Ce translocation from roots into shoots when only NPs bigger than 20 nm were applied. This study highlights that plant root activity can have a significant impact on the dissolution of CeO2-NPs in soil solution and that uptake of dissolved Ce(iii) followed by re-precipitation needs to be considered as an important pathway in studies of CeO2-NP uptake by plants.Metallomics 01/2015; 7(3). DOI:10.1039/c4mt00343h · 3.98 Impact Factor