[Antiviral immunity in drosophila].
ABSTRACT Viral diseases represent a constant threat and an important cause of mortality worldwide. We have developed a model to study the response to RNA virus infection in the fruit-fly drosophila. This insect is a good model to study the genetic bases of innate immunity, which constitutes the first level of host-defense in animals. We have shown that viral infection in drosophila triggers a response different from that to bacterial or fungal infections. Our data at this stage point to the existence of at least two types of antiviral defense mechanisms. On one hand, viral infection triggers a JAK-STAT dependent transcriptional response that leads to the expression of antiviral molecules that remain to be characterized. On the other hand, viral RNAs are recognized by Dicer-2 and degraded in siRNAs, thus inducing RNA interference and degradation of viral RNAs. Strikingly, the drosophila antiviral response evokes by some aspects the interferon response in mammals (JAK-STAT pathway) and antiviral defenses in plants (RNA interference).
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ABSTRACT: Arboviruses are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by biting arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks and midges. These viruses replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates and are thus exposed to different antiviral responses in these organisms. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific RNA degradation mechanism that has been shown to play a major role in the antiviral response against arboviruses in mosquitoes. Culicoides midges are important vectors of arboviruses, known to transmit pathogens of humans and livestock such as bluetongue virus (BTV) (Reoviridae), Oropouche virus (Bunyaviridae), and likely the recently discovered Schmallenberg virus (Bunyaviridae). In this study we investigated whether Culicoides cells possess an antiviral RNAi response and whether this is effective against arboviruses including those with dsRNA genome such as BTV. Using reporter-gene based assays we established the presence of a functional RNAi response in Culicoides sonorensis-derived KC cells, which is effective in inhibiting BTV infection. Sequencing of small RNAs from KC and Aedes aegypti-derived Aag2 cells infected with BTV or the unrelated Schmallenberg virus resulted in the production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) of 21 nucleotides, similar to the viRNAs produced during arbovirus infections of mosquitoes. In addition, viRNA profiles strongly suggest that the BTV dsRNA genome is accessible to a Dicer-type nuclease. Thus, we show for the first time that midge cells target arbovirus replication by mounting an antiviral RNAi response mainly resembling that of other insect vectors of arboviruses.Journal of Virology 12/2012; · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: Synergistic parasite-pathogen interactions mediated by host immunity can drive the collapse of honeybee colonies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The health of the honeybee and, indirectly, global crop production are threatened by several biotic and abiotic factors, which play a poorly defined role in the induction of widespread colony losses. Recent descriptive studies suggest that colony losses are often related to the interaction between pathogens and other stress factors, including parasites. Through an integrated analysis of the population and molecular changes associated with the collapse of honeybee colonies infested by the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, we show that this parasite can de-stabilise the within-host dynamics of Deformed wing virus (DWV), transforming a cryptic and vertically transmitted virus into a rapidly replicating killer, which attains lethal levels late in the season. The de-stabilisation of DWV infection is associated with an immunosuppression syndrome, characterized by a strong down-regulation of the transcription factor NF-κB. The centrality of NF-κB in host responses to a range of environmental challenges suggests that this transcription factor can act as a common currency underlying colony collapse that may be triggered by different causes. Our results offer an integrated account for the multifactorial origin of honeybee losses and a new framework for assessing, and possibly mitigating, the impact of environmental challenges on honeybee health.PLoS Pathogens 06/2012; 8(6):e1002735. · 9.13 Impact Factor
Article: ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP))-dependent regulation of cardiotropic viral infections.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effects of the cellular environment on innate immunity remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that in Drosophila ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP)) mediate resistance to a cardiotropic RNA virus, Flock House virus (FHV). FHV viral load in the heart rapidly increases in K(ATP) mutant flies, leading to increased viremia and accelerated death. The effect of K(ATP) channels is dependent on the RNA interference genes Dcr-2, AGO2, and r2d2, indicating that an activity associated with this potassium channel participates in this antiviral pathway in Drosophila. Flies treated with the K(ATP) agonist drug pinacidil are protected against FHV infection, thus demonstrating the importance of this regulation of innate immunity by the cellular environment in the heart. In mice, the Coxsackievirus B3 replicates to higher titers in the hearts of mayday mutant animals, which are deficient in the Kir6.1 subunit of K(ATP) channels, than in controls. Together, our data suggest that K(ATP) channel deregulation can have a critical impact on innate antiviral immunity in the heart.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2011; 108(29):12024-9. · 9.68 Impact Factor