In vitro evaluation of the effect of nicotine, cotinine and caffeine on oral microorganisms

Department of Physiological Sciences, Area of Pharmacology, Anesthesiology and Therapeutics, Dentistry School of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology (Impact Factor: 1.22). 07/2008; 54(6):501-8. DOI: 10.1139/w08-032
Source: PubMed


The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine on the viability of some oral bacterial species. It also evaluated the ability of these bacteria to metabolize those substances. Single-species biofilms of Streptococcus gordonii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, or Fusobacterium nucleatum and dual-species biofilms of S. gordonii -- F. nucleatum and F. nucleatum -- P. gingivalis were grown on hydroxyapatite discs. Seven species were studied as planktonic cells, including Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, Actinomyces naeslundii, and the species mentioned above. The viability of planktonic cells and biofilms was analyzed by susceptibility tests and time-kill assays, respectively, against different concentrations of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to quantify nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine concentrations in the culture media after the assays. Susceptibility tests and viability assays showed that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine cannot reduce or stimulate bacterial growth. High-performance liquid chromatography results showed that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine concentrations were not altered after bacteria exposure. These findings indicate that nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine, in the concentrations used, cannot affect significantly the growth of these oral bacterial strains. Moreover, these species do not seem to metabolize these substances.

Download full-text


Available from: Karina Cogo Müller,
  • Source
    • "Results involving caffeine are controversial. Daglia et al. (2007), Cogo et al. (2008) and Antonio et al. (2010) did not find antibacterial effect of plain caffeine in susceptibility tests. However, Daglia et al. (2007) found caffeine to possess inhibitory activity from 5.0 to 12.5 mg/mL. "

    Food Research International 04/2015; 49(1):459. · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Nicotine is a hazardous compound that causes tobacco related lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease [10]. Although more than 4000 substances are present in the tobacco cigarette smoke, nicotine is the major substance [11, 12]. Nicotine has a blood half-life period of approximately 2 h and causes severe vascular diseases [11, 12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bioremediation is one of the most promising methods to clean up polluted environments using highly efficient potent microbes. Microbes with specific enzymes and biochemical pathways are capable of degrading the tobacco alkaloids including highly toxic heterocyclic compound, nicotine. After the metabolic conversion, these nicotinophilic microbes use nicotine as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source for their growth. Various nicotine degradation pathways such as demethylation pathway in fungi, pyridine pathway in Gram-positive bacteria, pyrrolidine pathway, and variant of pyridine and pyrrolidine pathways in Gram-negative bacteria have been reported. In this review, we discussed the nicotine-degrading pathways of microbes and their enzymes and biotechnological applications of nicotine intermediate metabolites.
    The Scientific World Journal 12/2013; 2013(1):125385. DOI:10.1155/2013/125385 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Interestingly, caffeinated soft drinks were found to reduce bacterial prevalence in voice prosthetic biofilms. However, it did not show any activity against biofilms of seven species of oral bacteria (Cogo et al., 2008). No systematic efforts are made to explore the effect of caffeine on fungal adhesion and biofilm formation. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infections associated with drug resistant strains and biofilms of Candida albicans have necessitated search for novel molecules with antifungal properties. Caffeine, a major component of the most widely consumed beverages, coffee and tea, is known to possess various biological properties. To evaluate antifungal potential, its effect on growth and virulence attributes of C. albicans was studied using standard methodologies. Caffeine showed fungistatic effect on planktonic growth of two strains of C. albicans (including a fluconazole resistant strain), exhibiting minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 12.5 mM concentration. Around 30% decrease in the adhesion of cells in the presence of caffeine indicated considerable anti-adhesion activity. Caffeine prevented formation of biofilms (which are drug resistant forms), in a concentration dependent manner. Analysis by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) metabolic assay and microscopic observations showed inhibition of biofilm development at 25 mM concentration. This study, for the first time demonstrates dietary chemical, caffeine, as a potential inhibitor of growth, adhesion and biofilm formation by C. albicans.
    Journal of medicinal plant research 01/2013; 7(13):777. DOI:10.5897/JMPR12.765 · 0.88 Impact Factor
Show more