Article

Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse: A Multidimensional Assessment of Four Different Forms of Abuse

California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA.
Violence Against Women (Impact Factor: 1.33). 07/2008; 14(6):634-54. DOI: 10.1177/1077801208319283
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse.

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Available from: Mindy B Mechanic, Aug 03, 2015
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    • "Furthermore, partner abuse, as a traumatic stressor, can lead to the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which involves distressing memories, nightmares, insomnia, and loss of concentration (American Psychiatric Association 1994). At the moment, the rates of PTSD among battered women range from 31 to 84 %, as compared to the rates found among general community samples of women, which range from 1 to 12 % (Mechanic et al. 2008). Abused women also experience more negative life events and daily hassles than do non-battered women (Campbell and Lewandowski 1997; Eby et al. 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence is a major health problem for women; some of the most common symptoms of violence are depression, psychological distress, and sleep disturbances. In this parallel randomized controlled trial, which took place in Athens-Greece, abused women were randomly assigned to undergo either an 8-week stress management program (n = 16; relaxation breathing and progressive muscle relaxation, twice a day counseling) or standard shelter services (n = 18). Self-reported validated measures were used to evaluate perceived stress, health locus of control, depression, and ways of coping. In participants in the intervention group, perceived stress was significantly decreased after 8 weeks of relaxation, showing a medium effect of 0.45, but no significant results were noted for sleeping hours, health locus of control, depression, and ways of coping. These results reveal the need to develop interventions for this vulnerable population and future studies should incorporate more objective laboratory outcomes.
    Journal of Family Violence 08/2015; 30(6). DOI:10.1007/s10896-015-9740-8 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    • "However, in the regression analyses, physical-violence victimization became a nonsignificant predictor , probably because other variables (e.g., psychological violence) were greater predictors of PTSD symptoms than physical-violence victimization. Previous studies also found evidence suggesting that physical violence becomes a nonsignificant predictor of PTSD symptoms when psychological violence is entered into multivariate predictions (Arias & Pape, 1999; Mechanic et al., 2008). Future studies need to clarify the relationship between all types of dating violence and PTSD symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study has examined the effects that young adults' experience of dating-violence victimization can have on their manifestation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. This study has also examined the possible roles that cultural beliefs can play in dating-violence experience, coping choices, and PTSD symptoms. This study has used self-reporting measures to collect data from a nationally stratified random sample of 1,018 college students in Taiwan. Results demonstrate that college students who had experienced dating-violence victimization reported higher levels of PTSD symptoms than those who had not. The results reveal that psychological-violence victimization and cultural beliefs have direct and indirect effects on PTSD symptoms via the mediation of young adults' use of emotion-focused coping strategies. Greater frequencies of psychological-violence victimization were associated with a greater use of emotion-focused coping, which was in turn associated with increases in PTSD symptoms. This study illustrates that traditional Chinese beliefs have played significant roles in exacerbating the risk for dating violence and PTSD, and in shaping victims' coping choices with dating violence.
    Journal of Interpersonal Violence 10/2013; 29(4). DOI:10.1177/0886260513505213 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    • "" There are important questions about whether even standardized , well-established "mainstream" IPA-related measures show similar properties when applied to minority groups. For example, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent among battered women (e.g., Mechanic et al. 2008; Stampfel et al. 2010) and thus an important outcome to assess and compare among ethnoracial groups. However, in a random urban sample, Bourque and Shen (2005) found that both English-speaking (n 055) and Spanish-speaking (n080) Latinos had greater difficulty their non-Latino English speaking counterparts (n0305) understanding reverse worded items (e.g., " I do not feel guilt over things that I did in the past " ) on the Civilian Mississippi Scale, a widely-used self-report measure of PTSD, which led to falsely inflated PTSD symptom severity scores in the Latino group. "
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    ABSTRACT: Increasingly, attention has focused on ethnoracial disparities as causes and correlates of intimate partner abuse (IPA). Research may benefit from conceptualizing the experiences of ethnic minority women through the lenses of cultural, structural, and institutional inequalities expressed as racism, sexism, and oppression. To enhance the study of ethnocultural variation in IPA research and to promote cultural competence, we discuss a range of methodological issues pertinent to conducting ethnoculturally sensitive IPA research. Providing examples and recommendations from research on U.S. women, this paper explores ethnocultural considerations at each step of the research process: (a) conceptualization of the research question, (b) sampling, (c) recruitment and retention, (d) study design, (e) measurement, (f) statistical analysis, (g) interpretation of results, and (h) ethics. Recommendations include greater use of multiethnic samples of battered women from varying nationalities, and more within-group analyses to capture the substantial diversity and resilience observed within samples of battered women of color. Enhanced use of mixed-method designs combining qualitative and quantitative approaches are likely to lead to more nuanced understandings of the ways in which race, class, and culture impact the nature, dynamics, and impact of IPA. More inclusive research questions and ecologically valid methodologies are necessary for developing culturally competent, data driven policies and practices to promote social justice for ethnic minority battered women.
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