A genome-wide scan for common genetic variants with a large influence on warfarin maintenance dose.
ABSTRACT Warfarin dosing is correlated with polymorphisms in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) and the cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) genes. Recently, the FDA revised warfarin labeling to raise physician awareness about these genetic effects. Randomized clinical trials are underway to test genetically based dosing algorithms. It is thus important to determine whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in other gene(s) have a large effect on warfarin dosing. A retrospective genome-wide association study was designed to identify polymorphisms that could explain a large fraction of the dose variance. White patients from an index warfarin population (n = 181) and 2 independent replication patient populations (n = 374) were studied. From the approximately 550 000 polymorphisms tested, the most significant independent effect was associated with VKORC1 polymorphisms (P = 6.2 x 10(-13)) in the index patients. CYP2C9 (rs1057910 CYP2C9*3) and rs4917639) was associated with dose at moderate significance levels (P approximately 10(-4)). Replication polymorphisms (355 SNPs) from the index study did not show any significant effects in the replication patient sets. We conclude that common SNPs with large effects on warfarin dose are unlikely to be discovered outside of the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genes. Randomized clinical trials that account for these 2 genes should therefore produce results that are definitive and broadly applicable.
Article: VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes and acenocoumarol anticoagulation status: interaction between both genotypes affects overanticoagulation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to assess the effects of VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes on severe overanticoagulation and time to achieve stability and their contributions to dose requirement during the initial phase of acenocoumarol treatment. A prospective follow-up study was conducted at 2 anticoagulation clinics in The Netherlands. We assessed the CYP2C9 genotype (CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms) and the VKORC1 C1173T genotype of the subjects and collected data on international normalized ratio, dose, comedication, and comorbidity. Of the 231 patients in the cohort, 150 (64.9%) had a VKORC1 C1173T polymorphism and 84 (36.4%) had a CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3 allele. Only carriers of a combination of a CYP2C9 polymorphism and a VKORC1 polymorphism had an increased risk of severe overanticoagulation compared with subjects with no polymorphism or only 1 polymorphism (hazard ratio, 3.83 [95% confidence interval, 1.62-9.05]). The time to achieve stability was associated with the possession of the CYP2C9 genotype, not with the VKORC1 genotype (hazard ratio for CYP2C9*3 allele compared with CYP2C9 wild type, 0.59 [95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.87]). Patients with a VKORC1 polymorphism required significantly lower doses than VKORC1 CC wild-type patients. A larger part of the variability in dose requirement was explained by the VKORC1 genotype than by the CYP2C9 genotype (21.4% and 4.9%, respectively). Being a carrier of a combination of polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9, rather than of one of these polymorphisms, is associated with severe overanticoagulation. The time to achieve stability is mainly associated with the CYP2C9 genotype.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 08/2006; 80(1):13-22. · 6.04 Impact Factor