Effects of risperidone on procedural learning in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia.

Department of Psychiatry, Center for Cognitive Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 7.83). 07/2008; 34(2):468-76. DOI: 10.1038/npp.2008.79
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Studies of procedural learning in medicated schizophrenia patients using predictive saccade paradigms have consistently demonstrated hypometric predictive responses. Findings from antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients indicate fewer or no deficits. This pattern of findings suggests that antipsychotic medications might adversely affect frontostriatal systems supporting procedural learning on this task. The accuracy and latency of predictive saccades were assessed in 25 antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients and 22 matched healthy individuals. Patients were retested after 6 weeks of treatment with risperidone. Healthy individuals were reevaluated after a similar time period. The ability to learn to time response initiation in anticipation of target appearance (target prediction) was not impaired in patients before or after treatment. In contrast, although no deficits were evident before treatment initiation, after treatment patients showed a marked decrease in the accuracy of predictive but not sensory-guided responses. The findings from pretreatment testing indicate that procedural learning is a relatively unaffected cognitive domain in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia. Although treatment-emergent extrapyramidal symptoms were minimal, these data suggest that D2 antagonism in striatum after risperidone treatment was sufficiently robust to disrupt the generation of planned volitional behavior guided by internalized representations.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurocognitive deficits are associated with most psychotic disorders, but may differ across diagnosis and by treatment status. This ambiguity is partly addressed in longitudinal pre/post treatment studies with first episode patients. Antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients have shown intact performance on a predictive saccade task that assesses simple motor learning, spatial abilities, and response planning. After antipsychotic treatment, however, schizophrenia patients performing this task show a selective impairment in the accuracy of anticipatory responses, generated from learned internal representations of the task stimulus. This finding is in line with other observations of antipsychotic medication effects on frontostriatal systems, particularly dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We sought to replicate this provocative finding with an independent sample of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and extend it by including a group of patients with first episode bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP). Matched healthy controls were also studied in parallel. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated intact performance pretreatment followed by impairment post-treatment for accuracy of anticipatory responses, and worse accuracy was associated with higher antipsychotic dose. BDP patients displayed saccade accuracy deficits before and after treatment and had no correlation of performance and antipsychotic dose. The findings suggest different neural alterations early in the course of each psychotic disorder, and different vulnerabilities to antipsychotic treatment effects between schizophrenia and BDP.
    Schizophrenia Research 08/2014; 159(1). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.028 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Global deficits in declarative memory are commonly reported in individuals with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder, and in their biological relatives. However, it remains unclear whether there are specific components within the global declarative memory dysfunction that are unique to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, or whether these impairments overlap the two psychoses. This study sought to characterize differential components of learning and memory in individuals within the psychosis dimension: probands with schizophrenia (SZP, n=33), probands with psychotic bipolar I disorder (BDP, n=20), and biological relatives of SZP (SZR, n=21), contrasted with healthy controls (HC, n=26). A computerized cognitive paradigm, the Acquired Equivalence test, with probes for associative learning, memory for learned associations, and memory generalization was administered, along with standardized neuropsychological measures of declarative memory. All study groups were able to learn and remember the associations, although SZP were slower than HC in the initial learning stages. Both SZP (significantly) and BDP (at a trend level) showed altered memory generalization compared to HC (SZP vs. HC, p=.038, d=.8; BDP vs. HC, p=.069, d=.95). SZR showed memory generalization intermediate between SZP and HC, although their performance did not differ significantly from either group. These findings indicate that probands with schizophrenia and bipolar psychoses have similar alteration in the ability to flexibly generalize learned knowledge when probed with novel stimuli, despite overall sufficient associative learning and memory for what they learned. These results suggest that the two disorders present a clinical continuum with overlapping hippocampus-mediated memory generalization dysfunction underlying the psychosis phenotype.
    Schizophrenia Research 04/2012; 138(1):74-80. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2012.04.004 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic medications have established clinical benefit, but there are few neuroimaging studies before and after initiating antipsychotic medication to assess drug influence on brain circuitry. Attention and motor learning tasks are promising approaches for examining treatment-related changes in frontostriatal systems.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 06/2014; DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbu071 · 8.61 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014