Bovine colostrum as a biologic in clinical medicine: a review--Part II: clinical studies.

Center for Transfusion Medicine Muenster, German Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service West gGmbH, Muenster, Germany.
International journal of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (Impact Factor: 1.04). 06/2008; 46(5):211-25. DOI: 10.5414/CPP46211
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The value of bovine colostrum as a biologic in medicine is documented in clinical trials and supported by relatively large databases containing case reports and anecdotal findings. The main actions include an antibacterial effect and modulation of the immune response. The ability of bovine colostrum concentrates (BCC are polyvalent bovine colostrum concentrates produced from the colostrums of several 100 cows) to neutralize lipopolysaccharides, i.e. endotoxins arising from Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and to inhibit enterogenic endotoxemia in animal models as shown in the last review to have its counterpart in patient therapy. Clinical trials with BCC provide evidence that oral application reduces the influx of LPS from the gut and this appears to be a major mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect in patients at risk for Gram-negative septic shock; data from two well-controlled clinical studies with a total of 100 surgical patients have shown that the inhibition of intestinal LPS absorption measured after the application of BCC not only reduced the LPS levels in the peripheral blood but also inflammatory parameters like IL-6 and CRP were found to be diminished. The usual daily dose of the commercially available BCC preparation, LactobinA (LC1) is 10 â 20 g daily, but higher doses can be used in the majority of patients because of the low incidence of intolerance problems. In chronic diarrhea involving severe forms of secondary immunodeficiencies, patients receiving LC1 were disease-free for about 4 weeks but the response may be lower in patients with AIDS. BCC is effective in infants with hemorrhagic diarrhea caused by infections with enterohemorrhagic E. coli and reduces the likelihood of the disease progressing to a hemolytic uremic syndrome. The safety of newer BCC products obtained from BSE-free regions seems now beyond contention. In the case of LC1, which was used as a commercial dietary foodstuff in Germany until 1992 and tested in three Phase 1 and 5 clinical studies (two trials in patients with secondary immunodeficiencies, one in surgical patients with gastrointestinal disorders, one in patients undergoing open heart surgery and one in pediatric patients with EHEC infections), there were no cases of BSE-associated disease such as the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Side effects of clinical relevance are limited to possible intolerance to lactose and sensitivity to milk proteins as these are also present in many commonly used foodstuffs. Important synergistic actions with conventional drug therapies have been observed with BCC including a reduction in LPS plasma levels in patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections treated with bactericidal antibiotics. In healthy persons there are only small concentrations of LPS detectable in peripheral blood (normal values: 3 â 10 pg/ ml plasma, i.e. approximately 0.1 EU/ml). In contrast, elevated systemic levels with concentrations > 300 pg/ml are common in patients with severe Gram-negative sepsis and septic shock. Raised LPS levels occur mainly in patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections who have been treated with bacteriocidal antibiotics. The LPS-lowering effects of BCC are probably due to the numerous active components present in BCC which have their origin in the innate humoral and adaptive immune system of their biologic source, the cow.

Download full-text


Available from: Guenter Sprotte, Apr 06, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The EU ban on in-feed antibiotics has stimulated research on weaning diets as a way of reducing post-weaning gut disorders and growth check in pigs. Many bioactive components have been investigated but only few have shown to be effective. Amongst these, organic acids (OA) have been shown to exert a bactericidal action mediated by non-dissociated OA, by lowering gastric pH, increasing gut and pancreas enzyme secretion and improving gut wall morphology. It has been postulated that they may also enhance non-specific immune responses and improve disease resistance. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to the impact of OA on the stomach but recent data show they can differently affect gastric histology, acid secretion and gastric emptying. Butyrate and precursors of butyric acid have received special attention and although promising results have been obtained, their effects are dependent upon the dose, treatment duration, initial age of piglets, gastrointestinal site and other factors. The amino acids (AA) like glutamine, tryptophan and arginine are supportive in improving digestion, absorption and retention of nutrients by affecting tissue anabolism, stress and (or) immunity. Glutamine, cysteine and threonine are important for maintaining mucin and permeability of intestinal barrier function. Spray-dried plasma (SDP) positively affects gut morphology, inflammation and reduces acquired specific immune responses via specific and a-specific influences of immunoglobulins and other bioactive components. Effects are more pronounced in early-weaned piglets and under poorer health conditions. Little interaction between plasma protein and antibiotics has been found, suggesting distinct modes of action and additive effects. Bovine colostrum may act more or less similarly to SDP. The composition of essential oils is highly variable, depending on environmental and climatic conditions and distillation methods. These oils differ widely in their antimicrobial activity in vitro and some components of weaning diets may decrease their activity. Results in young pigs are highly variable depending upon the product and doses used. These studies suggest that relatively high concentrations of essential oils are needed for beneficial effects to be observed and it has been assumed that these plant extracts mimic most of the effects of antibiotics active on gut physiology, microbiology and immunology. Often, bioactive substances protective to the gut also stimulate feed intake and growth performance. New insights on the effects of selected OA and AA, protein sources (especially SDP, bovine colostrum) and plant extracts with anti-bacterial activities on the gut are reported in this review.
    animal 12/2009; 3(12):1625-43. DOI:10.1017/S175173110900398X · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to examine antioxidant and anticytokine effects of bovine colostrum (BC) in an intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injured rat model. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were induced intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. After reperfusion the rats were given BC, 0.9% saline or low fat milk (LFM) orally. The antioxidative activities using superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were analyzed in this study. Serum cytokine levels [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interlukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10] were also checked. SOD (1.53±0.23 U/mg of protein), GSH-PX (7.62±0.66 U/mg of protein), and CAT (42.16±3.16 U/mg of protein) activities increased and MDA level (0.58±0.05 mmol/mg of protein) decreased significantly in rats fed BC compared to rats fed saline or LFM (p<0.05). TNF-α (7.63±1.31 pg/mL), IL-1β (49.43±4.43 pg/mL), and IL-6 (62.85±7.60 pg/mL) in rats fed BC were significantly lower than saline or LFM (p<0.005), whereas there was no significant difference in IL-10 (220.3±22.06 pg/mL) between experimental groups. In conclusion, BC may have both antioxidative and anticytokine effects in an intestinal ischemia/reperfusion rat model. Keywordsanti-inflammation-bovine colostrum-cytokine-antioxidant-ischemia/reperfusion
    Food science and biotechnology 10/2010; 19(5):1295-1301. DOI:10.1007/s10068-010-0185-9 · 0.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the leading cause of travelers' diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a powdered extract of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to protect against diarrhea in volunteers challenged with ETEC. Tablets were manufactured from a colostrum extract from cattle immunized with 14 ETEC strains, including serogroup O78. Two separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving 90 healthy adult volunteers were performed to investigate the ability of different tablet formulations to protect against diarrhea following an oral challenge with an O78 ETEC strain. The first study with 30 participants evaluated the efficacy of tablets, containing 400 mg of colostrum protein, taken thrice daily with bicarbonate buffer. This regimen conferred 90.9% protection against diarrhea in the group receiving the active preparation compared with the placebo group (p = 0.0005). The second study examined the efficacy of tablets containing 400 mg colostrum protein given with buffer (83.3% protection; p = 0.0004) or without buffer (76.7% protection; p = 0.007), and tablets containing 200 mg colostrum protein given without buffer (58.3% protection; p = 0.02), compared with placebo. The difference between buffered and unbuffered treatments was not significant (p > 0.1). Active tablet formulations were significantly more effective than placebo in protecting volunteers against the development of diarrhea caused by ETEC. These results suggest that administration of a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing antibodies against ETEC strains may reduce the risk of travelers' diarrhea.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2011; 46(7-8):862-8. DOI:10.3109/00365521.2011.574726 · 2.33 Impact Factor