To identify and characterize possible structural specialisations in the wall of the lower urinary tract (LUT) in the region of the bladder urethral junction (BUJ), with the specific objective of identifying regional variations in sensory nerve fibres and interstitial cells (ICs).
The bladder base and urethra was removed from five male guinea pigs killed by cervical dislocation. Tissue pieces were incubated in Krebs' solution at 36 degrees C, gassed with 95% O(2) and 5% CO(2), fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and processed for immunohistochemistry. The nonspecific marker vimentin and the general neuronal marker protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 were used to identify ICs and nerve fibres, respectively. Specific antibody binding was visualized using the appropriate secondary antibodies.
The wall of the LUT in the region immediately between the bladder base and the urethra, the BUJ, differed in its cellular composition relative to the adjacent areas. PGP-positive (PGP(+)) nerve fibres, presumptive afferent fibres, lay within the urothelium running between the epithelial cells. There were two general nerve patterns: branching fibres with no varicosities, and complex fibres with varicosities. Fibre collaterals with varicosities exited the urothelium and occupied the space under the urothelium adjacent to the layer of suburothelial ICs. The latter, lamina propria and around the muscle bundles were identified using vimentin (vim(+)). In the base a few vim(+) cells were also PGP(+). In the region of the BUJ there was a decrease in the amount of smooth muscle. In this region, below the lamina propria, there was an area densely populated with vim(+)/PGP(+) ICs. Nerve fibres ran between the cells in this region.
These structural specialisations within the urothelium and deeper layers of the BUJ suggest that they might be associated with specific functions. The localized highly branched network of the putative afferent nerves suggests the presence of a local axonal reflexes involving possible cross-talk between the urothelium and suburothelial layer. The function of the specialized region of ICs is not known and must await further information on the functional properties of this novel cell type. These observations show further the cellular heterogeneity of the cells in the LUT and the complexity of the structures. One of the major current challenges in functional urology is to understand the relationships between these novel structures and overall bladder and urethral function.
"The muscle layer’s interstitial cells are further subdivided. Different cell markers, predominantly c-kit and vimentin, have been used to identify interstitial cells (45, 48-53) Both c-kit and vimentin positive cells are found in the lamina propria and around the muscle bundles of the inner and outer muscle layers. Neither a c-kit, nor vimentin, nor cGMP labeling seem to be ideal for identification of interstitial cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, a general introduction is given, presenting the overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) and its impact on the quality of life and economical burden in patients affected. Moreover, the anatomy, physiology and histology of the lower urinary tract are discussed, followed by a brief overview on the possible role of prostaglandin (PG) and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in the urinary bladder. The current literature on the role and distribution of PGE2 and its receptors in the urinary bladder is discussed. In both animal models and in human studies, high levels of signaling molecules such as PG and cGMP have been implicated, in decreased functional bladder capacity and micturition volume, as well as in increased voiding contraction amplitude. As a consequence, inhibition of prostanoid production, the use of prostanoid receptor antagonists, or PDE inhibitors might be a rational way to treat patients with detrusor overactivity. Similarly, prostanoid receptor agonists, or agents that stimulate their production, might have a function in treating bladder underactivity.
"Following our interest in the study of innervation of the lower urinary tract in the dog , this work is aimed at demonstrating the likely presence of interstitial cells (ICs) in the canine lower urinary tract. Over-mentioned tools were utilized for this purpose, together with the general neuronal marker protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, which was previously employed with the aim to mark nerve fibres in relation to IC cells  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to give an evidence of the likely presence of interstitial cells in the canine lower urinary tract and to study their possible interactions with the musculature and the intramural innervation. Cryosections of normal canine bladder and urethra were immunofluorescently labelled with c-kit, a transmembrane, tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor, known to be expressed on the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) of the gut. The relationship with antiactin positive smooth muscle cells and PGP9.5-positive intramural innervation was also investigated by confocal microscopy. Anti-c-kit labelling demonstrated a network of elongated and branched c-kit positive cells, which were located in interstitial spaces, oriented in parallel to the smooth muscle bundles that form the bladder muscular layer, irrespective of dog sex. Cells with a similar localization were also PAS- and NADPH-diaphorase-positive. A contact between c-kit immunofluorescent cells and intramural innervation was demonstrated, too. The roles of interstitial cells might include regulation of smooth muscle activity of the bladder detrusor, integrating neuronal signals during urine storage and voiding.
Veterinary Medicine International 07/2010; 2010. DOI:10.4061/2010/981693
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the expression of ubiquitin hydrolase (UH), an enzyme which is part of the ubiquitin-proteasome system involved in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, to gain an insight into the cell types and processes underlying the tissue remodelling that occur after bladder neck damage.
Three groups of male guinea pigs were used, comprising controls (not operated, four), sham (five) and obstructed (six). The bladder outlet was obstructed by implanting a silver ring around the urethra, which was left in situ for 2-4 weeks. Sham-operated guinea pigs had the same operative procedure but no ring was implanted. The bladders were removed and incubated in Krebs' solution at 36 degrees C, gassed with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, Tissues were then fixed in 4% depolymerized paraformaldehyde and processed for immunohistochemistry. We used antibodies raised against UH, cyclooxygenase type I and vimentin. Specific antibody binding was visualized using the appropriate secondary antibodies.
Staining with an antibody to UH showed the presence of both sensory and motor nerves in control, sham and obstructed bladders. In the control bladders this was the predominant staining pattern. In the sham and obstructed bladders UH staining revealed additional positive cell types; cells associated with the outermost layers of the urothelium (the umbrella cells), in the lamina propria (the lamina propria interstitial cells (lp-ICs), on the surface of the muscle bundles (surface muscle, sm-ICs) and on the serosal surface (muscle coat, mc-ICs). All ICs stained with vimentin. The ICs within the muscle bundles (intramuscular, im-ICs) did not stain with UH. The number and density of the UH-positive cells was greater in the obstructed than in the sham bladders, suggesting a change in relation to the severity of damage to the bladder neck.
The expression of UH implies the re-targeting of proteins marked for degradation in the proteasome. Increased expression of UH in the lp-ICs and sm-ICs shows that these cells are active in the early and late stages of the tissue remodelling resulting from obstruction. These results show a further subset of ICs that might be involved in the increased deposition of extracellular material and tissue remodelling.
BJU International 04/2009; 104(5):698-706. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.08475.x · 3.53 Impact Factor
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