Quantitative measurements of the progression (or regression) of carotid plaque burden are important in monitoring patients and evaluating new treatment options. 3D ultrasound (US) has been used to monitor the progression of carotid artery plaques in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, and different methods of measuring various ultrasound phenotypes of atherosclerosis have been developed. We have developed a quantitative metric used to analyze changes in carotid plaque morphology from 3D US. This method matched the vertices on the carotid arterial wall surface with those on the luminal surface. Vessel-wall-plus-plaque thickness (VWT) was obtained by computing the distance between each corresponding pair, which was then superimposed on the arterial wall to produce the VWT map. Since the progression of plaque thickness is important in monitoring patients who are at risk for stroke, we also computed the change of VWT by comparing the VWT maps obtained for a patient at two different time points. In this paper, we propose a technique to flatten the 3D VWT and VWT-Change maps in an area-preserving manner, in order to facilitate the visualization and interpretation of these maps.
"There has been little consensus to date as to which aspects of the geometry of the original surface should be preserved by a flattening method, with some researchers emphasizing the preservation of distances (Schwartz et al., 1989; Fischl et al., 1999a; Wandell et al., 2000; Zigelman et al., 2002; Sun and Hancock, 2008), some the preservation of angles (Angenent et al., 1999; Hurdal and Stephenson, 2004; Gu et al., 2004) or areas (Zhu et al., 2005; Chiu et al., 2008), and others attempting to preserve some combination of these geometric quantities (Carman et al., 1995; Drury et al., 1996; Goebel, 2000; Timsari and Leahy, 2000; Ju et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flattened representations of brain surfaces are often used to visualize and analyze spatial patterns of structural organization and functional activity. Here, we present a set of rigorous criteria and accompanying test cases with which to evaluate flattening algorithms that attempt to preserve shortest-path distances on the original surface. We also introduce a novel flattening algorithm that is the first to satisfy all of these criteria and demonstrate its ability to produce accurate flat maps of human and macaque visual cortex. Using this algorithm, we have recently obtained results showing a remarkable, unexpected degree of consistency in the shape and topographic structure of visual cortical areas within humans and macaques, as well as between these two species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carotid plaque surface irregularity and ulcerations play an important role in the risk of ischemic stroke. Ulcerated or fissured plaque, characterized by irregular surface morphology, exposes thrombogenic materials to the bloodstream, possibly leading to life- or brain-threatening thrombosis and embolization. Therefore, the quantification of plaque surface irregularity is important to identify high-risk plaques that would likely lead to vascular events. Although a number of studies have characterized plaque surface irregularity using subjective classification schemes with two or more categories, only a few have quantified surface irregularity using an objective and continuous quantity, such as Gaussian or mean curvature. In this work, our goal was to use both Gaussian and mean curvatures for identifying ulcers from 3D carotid ultrasound (US) images of human subjects. Before performing experiments using patient data, we verified the numerical accuracy of the surface curvature computation method using discrete spheres and tori with different sampling intervals. We also showed that three ulcers of the vascular phantom with 2 mm, 3 mm and 4 mm diameters were associated with high Gaussian and mean curvatures, and thus, were easily detected. Finally, we demonstrated the application of the proposed method for detecting ulcers on luminal surfaces, which were segmented from the 3D US images acquired for two human subjects.
Physics in Medicine and Biology 02/2009; 54(5):1149-67. DOI:10.1088/0031-9155/54/5/004 · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to evaluate 3-D ultrasound (3DUS)-derived vessel wall volume (VWV), a 3-D measurement of the carotid artery intima and media, including atherosclerotic plaque, in patients enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled three-month study of intensive atorvastatin treatment. Thirty-five subjects with carotid stenosis >60% who provided written informed consent and completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study were evaluated at baseline and at three months after receiving either 80 mg atorvastatin (16 subjects, nine male, mean age 68 ± 8.6 y) or placebo (19 subjects, 15 male, mean age 70 ± 9.4 y) daily. 3DUS images were acquired and 3DUS VWV was manually segmented by a single observer. Individual lumen and wall segmentation contours were also used to generate carotid atherosclerosis thickness difference maps by establishing correspondence between points along the vessel wall and lumen segmentation contour surfaces, and digitally subtracting registered baseline and follow-up thickness maps. 3DUS VWV increased by 70 ± 140 mm3 (+4.9 ± 10.3%) in the placebo group and decreased by 30 ± 110 mm3 (-1.4 ± 7.7%) in the atorvastatin group (p < 0.05). Two-dimensional maps generated from the VWV measurements show localized heterogeneity and vessel wall thickness changes for all subjects, mainly in the common carotid artery. Carotid 3DUS VWV is a quantitative measure of atherosclerosis burden including the intima, media and plaque, with sensitivity to detect changes over short periods of time. Quantitative VWV thickness difference maps provide visual evidence of the spatial and temporal dynamics of carotid artery changes. (E-mail: [email protected]
Ultrasound in medicine & biology 07/2009; 35(11):1763-72. DOI:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2009.05.017 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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