Perceptual connections between prepubertal children's voices in their speaking behavior and their singing behavior.
ABSTRACT Traditionally, children's speaking and singing behaviors have been regarded as two separate sets of behaviors. Nevertheless, according to the voice-scientific view, all vocal functioning is interconnected due to the fact that we exploit the same voice and the same physiological mechanisms in generating all vocalization. The intention of the study was to investigate whether prepubertal children's speaking and singing behaviors are connected perceptually. Voice recordings were conducted with 60 10-year-old children. Each child performed a set of speaking and singing tasks in the voice experiments. Each voice sample was analyzed perceptually with a specially designed perceptual voice assessment protocol. The main finding was that the children's vocal functioning and voice quality in their speaking behavior correlated statistically significantly with those in their singing behavior. The findings imply that children's speaking and singing behaviors are perceptually connected through their vocal functioning and voice quality. Thus, it can be argued that children possess one voice that is used for generating their speaking and singing behaviors.
- SourceAvailable from: Donald A Hodges
Article: The song system of the human brain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although sophisticated insights have been gained into the neurobiology of singing in songbirds, little comparable knowledge exists for humans, the most complex singers in nature. Human song complexity is evidenced by the capacity to generate both richly structured melodies and coordinated multi-part harmonizations. The present study aimed to elucidate this multi-faceted vocal system by using 15O-water positron emission tomography to scan "listen and respond" performances of amateur musicians either singing repetitions of novel melodies, singing harmonizations with novel melodies, or vocalizing monotonically. Overall, major blood flow increases were seen in the primary and secondary auditory cortices, primary motor cortex, frontal operculum, supplementary motor area, insula, posterior cerebellum, and basal ganglia. Melody repetition and harmonization produced highly similar patterns of activation. However, whereas all three tasks activated secondary auditory cortex (posterior Brodmann Area 22), only melody repetition and harmonization activated the planum polare (BA 38). This result implies that BA 38 is responsible for an even higher level of musical processing than BA 22. Finally, all three of these "listen and respond" tasks activated the frontal operculum (Broca's area), a region involved in cognitive/motor sequence production and imitation, thereby implicating it in musical imitation and vocal learning.Cognitive Brain Research 09/2004; 20(3):363-75. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The possible links between music and language continue to intrigue sci- entists interested in the nature of these two types of knowledge, their evolution, and their instantiation in the brain. Here we consider music and language from a developmental perspective, focusing on the degree to which similar mechanisms of learning and memory might subserve the acquisition of knowledge in these two domains. In particular, it seems possible that while adult musical and linguistic processes are modular- ized to some extent as separate entities, there may be similar develop- mental underpinnings in both domains, suggesting that modularity is emergent rather than present at the beginning of life. Directions for fu- ture research are considered.Music Perception - MUSIC PERCEPT. 01/2004; 21(3):289-311.
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ABSTRACT: High-pitched productions present difficulties in formant frequency analysis due to wide harmonic spacing and poorly defined formants. As a consequence, there is little reliable data regarding children's spoken or sung vowel formants. Twenty-nine 11-year-old Swedish children were asked to produce 4 sustained spoken and sung vowels. In order to circumvent the problem of wide harmonic spacing, F1 and F2 measurements were taken from vowels produced with a sweeping F0. Experienced choir singers were selected as subjects in order to minimize the larynx height adjustments associated with pitch variation in less skilled subjects. Results showed significantly higher formant frequencies for speech than for singing. Formants were consistently higher in girls than in boys suggesting longer vocal tracts in these preadolescent boys. Furthermore, formant scaling demonstrated vowel dependent differences between boys and girls suggesting non-uniform differences in male and female vocal tract dimensions. These vowel-dependent sex differences were not consistent with adult data.Journal of Voice 01/2000; 13(4):570-82. · 1.55 Impact Factor