High genetic variability in non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus strains by using Quadruplex PCR-based assay
ABSTRACT Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates always show, by using a multiplex PCR-system, four DNA fragments specific for aflR, nor-1, ver-1, and omt-A genes. Non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus strains give variable DNA banding pattern lacking one, two, three or four of these genes. Recently, it has been found and reported that some aflatoxin non-producing A. flavus strains show a complete set of genes. Because less is known about the incidence of structural genes aflR, nor-1, ver-1 and omt-A in aflatoxin non-producing strains of A. flavus, we decided to study the frequencies of the aflatoxin structural genes in non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus strains isolated from food and feed commodities. The results can be summarized as following: 36.5% of the examined non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus strains showed DNA fragments that correspond to the complete set of genes (quadruplet pattern) as found in aflatoxigenic A. flavus. Forty three strains (32%) showed three DNA banding patterns grouped in four profiles where nor-1, ver-1 and omt-A was the most frequent profile. Twenty five (18.7%) of non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus strains yielded two DNA banding pattern whereas sixteen (12%) of the strains showed one DNA banding pattern. In one strain, isolated from poultry feed, no DNA bands were found. The nor-1 gene was the most representative between the four aflatoxin structural assayed genes. Lower incidence was found for aflR gene. Our data show a high level of genetic variability among non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates that require greater attention in order to design molecular experiment to distinguish true aflatoxigenic from non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus strains.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Orazio Romeo, Aug 29, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Giancarlo Perrone
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- "From analyses of Aspergillus populations, several distinct deletions within aflatoxin cluster have been described that may each be responsible for atoxigenicity in various isolates. Either part or the entire biosynthetic cluster resulted deleted, or the non-aflatoxigenicity was associated to inability to amplify selected aflatoxin genes (Chang et al., 2005; Criseo et al., 2008; Donner et al., 2010). "
ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins and the producing fungi Aspergillus section Flavi are widely known as the most serious and dangerous mycotoxin issue in agricultural products. In Europe, before the outbreak of aflatoxins on maize (2003-2004) due to new climatic conditions, their contamination was confined to imported foods. Little information is available on molecular biodiversity and population structure of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe. Preliminary reports evidenced the massive presence of Aspergillus flavus L -morphotype as the predominant species in maize field, no evidence of the highly toxigenic S-morphotype and of other aflatoxigenic species are reported. The risk of a shift in traditional occurrence areas for aflatoxins is expected in the world and in particular in South East of Europe due to the increasing average temperatures. Biological control of aflatoxin risk in the field by atoxigenic strains of A. flavus starts to be widely used in Africa and USA. Studies are necessary on the variation of aflatoxin production in populations of A. flavus to characterize stable atoxigenic A. flavus strains. The aim of present article is to give an overview on biodiversity and genetic variation of Aspergillus section Flavi in Europe in relation to the management of aflatoxins risk in the field.Frontiers in Microbiology 07/2014; 5:377. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00377 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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- "The primers and their sequences (Table 1) which were used in the PCR amplification experiments were reported in previous work [1, 5, 14]. The primers were obtained from Alpha DNA/Canada. "
ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins are potent carcinogens and produced by almost all Aspergillus parasiticus isolates and about 35% of Aspergillus flavus isolates. Chemical methods are used for detection of aflatoxins in food and feed. These methods cannot detect aflatoxinogenic fungi in samples, which contain undetectable amounts of aflatoxins. The objective of this research work was to ascertain the importance of molecular and microbiological methods in detection of aflatoxinogenic fungus A. parasiticus in food and feed samples in Jordan. Specific media for the detection of aflatoxins showed the prevalence of A. parasiticus (6-22%) in contaminated food and feed samples. HPLC method confirmed the presence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in food sample contaminated with A. parasiticus. Primer set OmtBII-F and OmtBII-R amplified DNA fragment of 611 base pairs from genomic DNA of aflatoxinogenic A. parasiticus isolated from food and feed samples but could not amplify DNA fragment of nonaflatoxinogenic A. flavus. The results of this study showed the prevalence of aflatoxinogenic A. parasiticus in food and feed samples in Jordan and give further evidence of suitability of microbiological and molecular methods in detection of aflatoxins, which are reliable low-cost approach to determine food and feed biosafety.International Journal of Microbiology 04/2012; 2012:675361. DOI:10.1155/2012/675361
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- "Linkage disequilibrium analysis for homologous regions in full and partial clusters revealed that polymorphisms in deletion strains align with blocks 3–6 (Fig. S3; Table S1), indicating a shared history of recombination in complete and partial clusters; however , block 1, which spans aflT to aflE, is the largest block and is missing in all partial clusters (Chang et al. 2005; Yin et al. 2009). Two recent studies examining nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains isolated from peanut fields in China (Yin et al. 2009) and from food and feed commodities in Italy (Criseo et al. 2008) report a high frequency of cluster deletions, which could account for more than 60% of the nonaflatoxigenic trait (Criseo et al. 2008). All deletion patterns reported so far are consistent with the block structure we report. "
ABSTRACT: Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus are potent carcinogens that contaminate agricultural crops. Recent efforts to reduce aflatoxin concentrations in crops have focused on biological control using nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus strains AF36 (=NRRL 18543) and NRRL 21882 (the active component of afla-guard. However, the evolutionary potential of these strains to remain nonaflatoxigenic in nature is unknown. To elucidate the underlying population processes that influence aflatoxigenicity, we examined patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) spanning 21 regions in the aflatoxin gene cluster of A. flavus. We show that recombination events are unevenly distributed across the cluster in A. flavus. Six distinct LD blocks separate late pathway genes aflE, aflM, aflN, aflG, aflL, aflI and aflO, and there is no discernable evidence of recombination among early pathway genes aflA, aflB, aflC, aflD, aflR and aflS. The discordance in phylogenies inferred for the aflW/aflX intergenic region and two noncluster regions, tryptophan synthase and acetamidase, is indicative of trans-species evolution in the cluster. Additionally, polymorphisms in aflW/aflX divide A. flavus strains into two distinct clades, each harbouring only one of the two approved biocontrol strains. The clade with AF36 includes both aflatoxigenic and nonaflatoxigenic strains, whereas the clade with NRRL 21882 comprises only nonaflatoxigenic strains and includes all strains of A. flavus missing the entire gene cluster or with partial gene clusters. Our detection of LD blocks in partial clusters indicates that recombination may have played an important role in cluster disassembly, and multilocus coalescent analyses of cluster and noncluster regions indicate lineage-specific gene loss in A. flavus. These results have important implications in assessing the stability of biocontrol strains in nature.Molecular Ecology 11/2009; 18(23):4870-87. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04414.x · 6.49 Impact Factor