The validity of self-reported prescription medication use among adolescents varied by therapeutic class
ABSTRACT Validation studies of self-reported medication use in adolescents have been scarce. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported use of medication using a prescription database as reference standard.
The study population consisted of a cohort of 2,613 adolescents aged 15-16 years from the Norwegian youth health survey in 2004 and 2005. Self-reported data on medication use were compared with data from the Norwegian Prescription Database which contains information from all prescription dispensed at Norwegian pharmacies.
Sensitivity for self-reported questions on medication use was highest for contraceptive pills 99.2% (95% CI 97.7-100) compared to antiasthmatics 79.1% (66.9-91.2), painkillers 48.5% (36.7-60.4), and psychotropic drugs 75.0% (35.6-95.6). Specificity values of self-reported information of psychotropic drugs 89.6% (87.8-91.5) and antiasthmatics 87.4% (85.4-89.5) were higher than for painkillers 80.0% (77.5-82.4) and contraceptive pills 76.2% (72.3-80.1).
Validity of self-reported previous medication use among adolescents differed by the therapeutic classes of medication. The highest sensitivity was observed for contraceptive pills and lowest for prescribed painkillers.
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ABSTRACT: Aims: The study explored the prevalence and correlates of the non-prescribed use (misuse) of prescription opioid analgesics in a nationally representative sample of adolescent students in Greece. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected through anonymous questionnaires administered to a random stratified sample of 676 high schools involving 23,279 students aged 15–19 in 2011. Findings: About 16.2% reported lifetime misuse, 6.3% repeated misuse at least three times – most of them to alleviate pain. Results of multivariate logistic regression showed that among the strongest correlates of repeated misuse were peer misuse (Odds ratio [OR] = 4.10, 99% Confidence Interval [CI] = 3.11–5.42), past prescription of opioid analgesics (OR = 3.19, 99% CI = 2.28–4.48 in males, OR = 2.38, 99% CI = 1.78–3.19 in females), lifetime misuse of tranquilisers/sedatives (OR = 3.16, 99% CI = 2.22–4.48), and frequent use of over-the-counter analgesics (OR = 2.37, 99% CI = 1.92–2.92). Other correlates included: female gender, daily smoking (by girls), frequent alcohol use, antisocial behaviour, physical or emotional maltreatment, and past prescription of tranquilisers/sedatives. Illicit drug use failed to explain opioid analgesics misuse. Conclusions: Misuse of prescription analgesics is common among adolescents in Greece and seems to emerge within a self-treating rather than a mood-altering context of use.Drugs: Education Prevention and Policy 03/2014; 21(5). DOI:10.3109/09687637.2014.899989 · 0.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose Pharmacological treatment is important in asthma care, but there are methodological challenges in measuring how drugs are used by patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the concordance between register data on dispensed drugs and parental-reported use of asthma drugs in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study comparing data on dispensed drugs from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register with data on parental-reported use of asthma drugs among 3SIX-PER-EM SPACE316 adolescents (age 11-14years) in a population-based birth cohort in Sweden. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predicted value for different time windows (3, 6, 12, 18, and 24months) for dispensing in the register were computed. Logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with concordance. Results The prevalence of parental-reported use of asthma drugs in the past year was 10.7% (n=356) compared with 8.1% (n=269) for dispensed drugs according to the register (p0.001). The sensitivity increased with an extended time window in the register, whereas the specificity remained high up to 18months. Although 90% of the adolescents with asthma had parental-reported use of asthma drugs, 30% of them had no such drugs dispensed in the preceding 18months. The highest concordance was seen for adolescents with severe asthma (OR 4.6, CI 1.2-17.6). Conclusions An 18-month window is preferable when using dispensing data to study the use of asthma drugs. Still, many adolescents with reported drug use had not purchased any asthma drug in this period. The concordance between parental-reported use and dispensed drugs is higher for adolescents with severe asthma. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 09/2014; 23(9). DOI:10.1002/pds.3662 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Experiments in animal models have shown a positive association between in utero exposure to pharmacologic sex hormones and offspring obesity. The developmental effects of such hormones on human obesity are unknown. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using data from a large, prospective pregnancy cohort study (n = 19 652), with linkage to a national prescription registry, we evaluated the association between use of hormonal contraceptives before and after conception (defined from dispensed prescription data and characterized by last date of use relative to conception, 12 to >4 months before (n = 3392), 4 to >1 months before (n = 2541), 1 to >0 months before (n = 2997) and 0-12 weeks after (n = 567)) in relation to offspring overweight or obesity at age 3 years. RESULTS: We observed a weak, inverse association between early pregnancy use of a combination oral contraceptive and offspring overweight or obesity at age 3 (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53, 1.08) and a positive, but imprecise, association with use of a progestin-only oral contraceptive in early pregnancy (adjusted OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.79, 2.02). In general, no association was observed between the use of a hormonal contraceptive before conception and offspring overweight or obesity. A sensitivity analysis comparing combination oral contraceptive users in early pregnancy to other unplanned pregnancies without hormonal contraceptive use further strengthened the inverse association (adjusted OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.02). Other sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the associations observed given varying assumptions. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacologic sex hormones in early pregnancy may be inversely or positively associated with offspring overweight or obesity at age 3, depending on the specific formulation used. The present study provides support for the potential for environmental sources of hormonally active agents to exert developmental effects.International journal of obesity (2005) 07/2014; 38(10). DOI:10.1038/ijo.2014.114 · 5.39 Impact Factor