Validation studies of self-reported medication use in adolescents have been scarce. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported use of medication using a prescription database as reference standard.
The study population consisted of a cohort of 2,613 adolescents aged 15-16 years from the Norwegian youth health survey in 2004 and 2005. Self-reported data on medication use were compared with data from the Norwegian Prescription Database which contains information from all prescription dispensed at Norwegian pharmacies.
Sensitivity for self-reported questions on medication use was highest for contraceptive pills 99.2% (95% CI 97.7-100) compared to antiasthmatics 79.1% (66.9-91.2), painkillers 48.5% (36.7-60.4), and psychotropic drugs 75.0% (35.6-95.6). Specificity values of self-reported information of psychotropic drugs 89.6% (87.8-91.5) and antiasthmatics 87.4% (85.4-89.5) were higher than for painkillers 80.0% (77.5-82.4) and contraceptive pills 76.2% (72.3-80.1).
Validity of self-reported previous medication use among adolescents differed by the therapeutic classes of medication. The highest sensitivity was observed for contraceptive pills and lowest for prescribed painkillers.
"An important strength of this study is its use of a comprehensive national prescription register, which eliminates errors in measurement of psychotropic drug use due to inadequate recall by respondents. Another advantage of using register-based information is that it circumvents the common problem of psychotropic drug use being underreported.28,29 However, lack of information on adherence is always an issue when reporting prescription data for drug use. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to investigate the prevalence of psychotropic (hypnotic, antidepressant, and anxiolytic) drug use among adolescents aged 15-16 years during the period 2006-2010 according to gender and subcategories of psychotropics, and to study psychotropic drug use over the period 2007-2010 among incident users in 2007.
This was a one-year prevalence and follow-up study based on information retrieved from the nationwide Norwegian prescription database for the period 2006-2010. The study population consisted of adolescents aged 15-16 years who had filled at least one prescription for a psychotropic drug in the study period. The main outcome measures were filling of hypnotic, antidepressant, and/or anxiolytic drug prescriptions.
Overall use of psychotropic drugs increased from 13.9 to 21.5 per 1000 among boys and from 19.7 to 24.7 per 1000 among girls during the 2006- 2010 period. Hypnotic drugs, and melatonin in particular, accounted for most of the increase. For melatonin, the annual median amount dispensed was 180 defined daily doses through the period until 2010, at which time it decreased to 90 defined daily doses. In total, 16.4% of all incident psychotropic drug users in 2007 were still having prescriptions dispensed in 2010.
This study shows an increase in hypnotic drugs dispensed for adolescents in Norway, mainly attributable to the increasing use of melatonin. The amount of melatonin dispensed indicates more than sporadic use over longer periods, despite melatonin only being licensed in Norway for use in insomnia for individuals aged 55 years or older.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SAMMENDRAG BAKGRUNN Mange vestlige land rapporterer om økende bruk av psykofarmaka hos barn og ungdom. Kunnskap om bruk av anxiolytika og hypnotika/sedativa i Norge har frem til 2004 i all hovedsak basert seg på salgsstatistikk fra grossister til apotek. Slik statistikk gir imidlertid ingen informasjon om legemiddelbruk på individnivå. Ved hjelp av Reseptregisteret (opprettet i 2004) kan man kartlegge forbruk og belyse endringer over tid på individnivå. FORMÅL Studere bruk av anxiolytika og hypnotika hos barn og ungdom i aldersgruppen 0-17 år i Norge i perioden 2004-2007. MATERIALE OG METODE Studien er basert på data fra Reseptregisteret (Nor PD) som inneholder opplysninger over alle reseptpliktige legemidler utlevert fra alle landets apotek. Databasen dekker hele Norges befolkning (rundt 4,8 millioner). Studiepopulasjonen er barn og ungdom i aldersgruppen 0-17 år som har mottatt minst en utlevering av anxiolytika eller hypnotika/sedativa i løpet av perioden 2004-2007. Resultatene er presentert med ettårsprevalens og mengde utlevert i definerte døgndoser (DDD) per person per år. Analysene ble utført ved hjelp av statistikkprogrammet SPSS 15.0. RESULTATER/KONKLUSJON I perioden 2004-2007 har bruk av anxiolytika vært relativt stabilt, mens det har vært en betydelig økning i bruk av hypnotika/sedativa til barn og ungdom. Denne økningen skyldes i hovedsak økt bruk av melatonin som i gjennomsnitt utgjorde 77,2 % av det totale forbruket av sovemidler hos barn og ungdom i perioden (73,5 % i 2004, 77,2 % i 2005, 77,9 % i 2006 og 80,1 % i 2007). Guttene stod for over to tredeler (69,5 %) av forbruket av melatonin. Urovekkende mange barn og ungdom får utlevert høye doser DDD (over 200 DDD i året som da tilsvarer 1 DDD annen hver dag). ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Many Western countries report of increase in psychotropic drug use among children and adolescents. The Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD) was established in 2004. The database gives the opportunity to describe drug use patterns and highlighting changes over time in individuals. Earlier (than 2004) one had to use sales statistics from the wholesome dealer in order to describe the use of anxiolytics and hypnotics/sedatives In Norway. AIM To study the use of anxiolytics and hypnotics among 0-17 years old children and adolescents in Norway in the period 2004-2007 MATERIAL AND METHODS Data were retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD) which contains information of all reimbursement drugs prescriptions dispensed from Norwegian pharmacies. NorPD covers the entire nation (approximately 4,8 million). The study population is among 0-17 years old children and adolescent who received at least one dispensed anxiolytics or hypnotics/sedatives during the period 2004-2007. Outcome measures were one-year periodic prevalence and amount dispensed in defined daily doses (DDD) per person per year. SPSS 15.0 for Windows was applied for statistical analyses. RESULTS/ CONCLUSION During the period 2004-2007 use of anxiolytics has been relatively stable, while there has been a considerable increase in use of hypnotics/sedatives among children and adolescents. The increase is mainly due to use of melatonin, which accounted for 77,2 % of the total use of hypnotics among children and adolescents (73,5 % in 2004, 77,2 % in 2005, 77,9 % in 2006 and 80,1 % in 2007). Boys accounted for 69,5 % of the users of melatonin. A disturbing amount of children and adolescents were dispensed high numbers of DDD (over 200 DDD a year which means 1 DDD every second day). Nå
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An auditory evoked potential and psychoacoustic system which
integrates a host personal computer with an Ariel DSP-16 digital signal
processing board for optimal flexibility in the design and programming
of experiments are discussed. The software on the signal processing
board operates in parallel with the ASYST scientific language on the
host computer. The system allows for the elaborate sequencing of digital
stimuli and signal averages, in parallel with real-time processing for
quality control. A library of easy-to-use macro functions is provided
for customized algorithm development to realize innovative experimental
protocols. Because the system is centered in a personal computer, it is
an inexpensive yet powerful experimental tool
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1989. Images of the Twenty-First Century., Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in; 12/1989
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