Purification and characterization of a novel (R)-hydroxynitrile lyase from Eriobotrya japonica (Loquat).
ABSTRACT A hydroxynitrile lyase was isolated and purified to homogeneity from seeds of Eriobotrya japonica (loquat). The final yield, of 36% with 49-fold purification, was obtained by 30-80% (NH(4))(2)SO(4) fractionation and column chromatography on DEAE-Toyopearl and Concanavalin A Sepharose 4B, which suggested the presence of a carbohydrate side chain. The purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 72 kDa as determined by gel filtration, and 62.3 kDa as determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal sequence is reported. The enzyme was a flavoprotein containing FAD as a prosthetic group, and it exhibited a K(m) of 161 microM and a k(cat)/K(m) of 348 s(-1) mM(-1) for mandelonitrile. The optimum pH and temperature were pH 5.5 and 40 degrees C respectively. The enzyme showed excellent stability with regard to pH and temperature. Metal ions were not required for its activity, while activity was significantly inhibited by CuSO(4), HgCl(2), AgNO(3), FeCl(3), beta-mercaptoethanol, iodoacetic acid, phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, and diethylpyrocarbonate. The specificity constant (k(cat)/K(m)) of the enzyme was investigated for the first time using various aldehydes as substrates. The enzyme was active toward aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, and showed a preference for smaller substrates over bulky one.
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ABSTRACT: strophic with chorus piano and voice Johns Hopkins University, Levy Sheet Music Collection, Box 032, Item 056 Words by Francis De Haes Janvier. Music by J.W. Jost. [unattributed lith. of John Ross, Chief of the Cherokees]; Porter Er. & Pr. 1029 Ches. St.01/2011;
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ABSTRACT: A novel method is proposed for transverse mode control of an oxide confined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) by a dielectric aperture (DA) formed on the top surface. From I-L characteristics and far field patterns (FFP), the diameter of the DA is optimized to be 10 μm. Suppression of higher order transverse modes is confirmed by narrowing of the far field pattern.01/2001;
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ABSTRACT: A hydroxynitrile lyase from leaves of Passiflora edulis (PeHNL) was purified and characterized for the first time. The enzyme is a monomer of 15 kDa and 18 kDa by SDS-PAGE, and gel filtration, respectively. Asymmetric synthesis of (R)-mandelonitrile from benzaldehyde and acetone cyanohydrin in a biphasic system employing the PeHNL from rinds of P. edulis was carried out. Several parameters influenced the enantiomeric purity of the product and initial velocity of the reaction. Both pH and temperature were important parameters controlling the enantiomeric purity of the product. The optimum pH and temperature were pH 4 and 10 °C, respectively. At the optimum pH and temperature, the spontaneous non-enzymatic reaction yielding the racemic mandelonitrile was almost completely suppressed. The PeHNL was stable (more than 80% residual activity after incubation for 12 h) in the system of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE), dibutyl ether (DBE), hexane (HEX), and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) while diethyl ether (DEE) and ethyl acetate (EA) were not suitable solvents. The initial velocity was markedly affected by the type of organic solvent in the biphasic system, while high enantiomeric purity was obtained when organic solvents having log P lower than 3.5 were used. The highest initial velocity of reaction and enantiomeric purity of (R)-mandelonitrile were obtained in the biphasic system of DBE with the aqueous phase content of 30% (v/v). The optimum substrate concentrations were 250 mM for benzaldehyde and 900 mM for acetone cyanohydrin, and the optimum enzyme concentration was 26.7 units/ml. The highest enantiomeric purity of (R)-mandelonitrile was successfully obtained with conversion and enantiomeric excess of 31.6% and 98.6%, respectively. The enzyme showed considerable reusability in batch reaction with high enantiomeric purity of product.Herein, we reported the characteristics of a unique (R)-PeHNL from leaves of P. edulis. The PeHNL from rinds had been isolated for the first time and the enzyme showed great ability in transcyanation of (R)-mandelonitrile with high e.e. in DBE as the co-organic solvent in a biphasic system.Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 01/2010;