Protein kinase C modulates inactivation of Kv3.3 channels.
ABSTRACT Modulation of some Kv3 family potassium channels by protein kinase C (PKC) regulates their amplitude and kinetics and adjusts firing patterns of auditory neurons in response to stimulation. Nevertheless, little is known about the modulation of Kv3.3, a channel that is widely expressed throughout the nervous system and is the dominant Kv3 family member in auditory brainstem. We have cloned the cDNA for the Kv3.3 channel from mouse brain and have expressed it in a mammalian cell line and in Xenopus oocytes to characterize its biophysical properties and modulation by PKC. Kv3.3 currents activate at positive voltages and undergo inactivation with time constants of 150-250 ms. Activators of PKC increased current amplitude and removed inactivation of Kv3.3 currents, and a specific PKC pseudosubstrate inhibitor peptide prevented the effects of the activators. Elimination of the first 78 amino acids of the N terminus of Kv3.3 produced noninactivating currents suggesting that PKC modulates N-type inactivation, potentially by phosphorylation of sites in this region. To identify potential phosphorylation sites, we investigated the response of channels in which serines in this N-terminal domain were subjected to mutagenesis. Our results suggest that serines at positions 3 and 9 are potential PKC phosphorylation sites. Computer simulations of model neurons suggest that phosphorylation of Kv3.3 by PKC may allow neurons to maintain action potential height during stimulation at high frequencies, and may therefore contribute to stimulus-induced changes in the intrinsic excitability of neurons such as those of the auditory brainstem.
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ABSTRACT: A-type voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels self-regulate their activity by inactivating directly from the open state (open-state inactivation [OSI]) or by inactivating before they open (closed-state inactivation [CSI]). To determine the inactivation pathways, it is often necessary to apply several pulse protocols, pore blockers, single-channel recording, and kinetic modeling. However, intrinsic hurdles may preclude the standardized application of these methods. Here, we implemented a simple method inspired by earlier studies of Na(+) channels to analyze macroscopic inactivation and conclusively deduce the pathways of inactivation of recombinant and native A-type Kv channels. We investigated two distinct A-type Kv channels expressed heterologously (Kv3.4 and Kv4.2 with accessory subunits) and their native counterparts in dorsal root ganglion and cerebellar granule neurons. This approach applies two conventional pulse protocols to examine inactivation induced by (a) a simple step (single-pulse inactivation) and (b) a conditioning step (double-pulse inactivation). Consistent with OSI, the rate of Kv3.4 inactivation (i.e., the negative first derivative of double-pulse inactivation) precisely superimposes on the profile of the Kv3.4 current evoked by a single pulse because the channels must open to inactivate. In contrast, the rate of Kv4.2 inactivation is asynchronous, already changing at earlier times relative to the profile of the Kv4.2 current evoked by a single pulse. Thus, Kv4.2 inactivation occurs uncoupled from channel opening, indicating CSI. Furthermore, the inactivation time constant versus voltage relation of Kv3.4 decreases monotonically with depolarization and levels off, whereas that of Kv4.2 exhibits a J-shape profile. We also manipulated the inactivation phenotype by changing the subunit composition and show how CSI and CSI combined with OSI might affect spiking properties in a full computational model of the hippocampal CA1 neuron. This work unambiguously elucidates contrasting inactivation pathways in neuronal A-type Kv channels and demonstrates how distinct pathways might impact neurophysiological activity.The Journal of General Physiology 11/2012; 140(5):513-27. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mutations in Kv3.3 cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13). Depending on the causative mutation, SCA13 is either a neurodevelopmental disorder that is evident in infancy or a progressive neurodegenerative disease that emerges during adulthood. Previous studies did not clarify the relationship between these distinct clinical phenotypes and the effects of SCA13 mutations on Kv3.3 function. The F448L mutation alters channel gating and causes early-onset SCA13. R420H and R423H suppress Kv3 current amplitude by a dominant negative mechanism. However, R420H results in the adult form of the disease whereas R423H produces the early-onset, neurodevelopmental form with significant clinical overlap with F448L. Since individuals with SCA13 have one wild type and one mutant allele of the Kv3.3 gene, we analysed the properties of tetrameric channels formed by mixtures of wild type and mutant subunits. We report that one R420H subunit and at least one R423H subunit can co-assemble with the wild type protein to form active channels. The functional properties of channels containing R420H and wild type subunits strongly resemble those of wild type alone. In contrast, channels containing R423H and wild type subunits show significantly altered gating, including a hyperpolarized shift in the voltage dependence of activation, slower activation, and modestly slower deactivation. Notably, these effects resemble the modified gating seen in channels containing a mixture of F448L and wild type subunits, although the F448L subunit slows deactivation more dramatically than the R423H subunit. Our results suggest that the clinical severity of R423H reflects its dual dominant negative and dominant gain of function effects. However, as shown by R420H, reducing current amplitude without altering gating does not result in infant onset disease. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that changes in Kv3.3 gating contribute significantly to an early age of onset in SCA13.The Journal of Physiology 01/2012; 590(Pt 7):1599-614. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 5-Hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptors are excitatory ion channels belonging to the cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels. They are involved in nausea and vomiting and their antagonists are used clinically as antiemetic drugs. We previously reported the development of a novel pyrrole analog of etomidate, (R)-ethyl 1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (carboetomidate), which retains etomidate's desirable anesthetic and hemodynamic properties, but lacks its potent inhibitory effect on adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated steroid synthesis. Also in contrast to etomidate, carboetomidate potently inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Because nicotinic acetylcholine and 5-HT(3) receptors are highly homologous, we hypothesized that carboetomidate might also potently inhibit 5-HT(3) receptors with potentially important implications for the drug's emetogenic activity. In the current studies, we investigated and compared modulation of 5-HT(3A) receptors by carboetomidate and etomidate. 5-HT(3) receptors were heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Drugs were applied with a multichannel superfusion pipette coupled to piezoelectric elements, and currents were recorded from cells in either the whole-cell or excised outside-out patch configuration of patch-clamp recordings. Carboetomidate and etomidate inhibited integrated 5-HT(3A) receptor-mediated currents with respective half-inhibitory concentrations of 1.9 μM (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-2.7 μM) and 25 μM (95% CI = 17-37 μM). These values may be compared with respective hypnotic concentrations of 5.4 and 2.3 µM. This inhibition reflected hypnotic effects on peak current amplitudes and desensitization rates. Half-inhibitory concentrations for reducing peak current amplitudes were 34 μM (95% CI = 24-48 µM) for carboetomidate and 171 μM (95% CI = 128-228 µM) for etomidate. Half-inhibitory concentrations for reducing the desensitization time constant were 3.5 μM (95% CI = 2.4-5.1 µM) for carboetomidate and 36 μM (95% CI = 21-59 µM) for etomidate. In contrast to etomidate, carboetomidate inhibits 5-HT(3A) receptor-mediated currents at hypnotic concentrations. This inhibition is primarily the result of enhancing the rate of desensitization. Because carboetomidate potently inhibits 5-HT(3A) receptors, it may be less emetogenic than etomidate.Anesthesia and analgesia 03/2013; 116(3):573-9. · 3.08 Impact Factor