Discovery of potent and cell-active allosteric dual Akt 1 and 2 inhibitors.
ABSTRACT This paper describes the improvement of cell potency in a class of allosteric Akt 1 and 2 inhibitors. Key discoveries include identifying the solvent exposed region of the molecule and appending basic amines to enhance the physiochemical properties of the molecules. Findings from the structure-activity relationships are discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Akt2 is considered as a potential target for cancer therapy. In order to find novel Akt2 inhibitors which have different scaffolds, structure-based pharmacophore model and 3D-QSAR pharmacophore model were built and validated by different methods. Then, they were used for chemical databases virtual screening. The selected compounds were further analyzed and refined using drug-like filters and ADMET analysis. Finally, seven hits with different scaffolds were picked out for docking studies. These seven hits were predicted to have high inhibitory activity and good ADMET properties, they may act as novel leads for Akt2 inhibitors designing.International journal of medical sciences 01/2013; 10(3):265-275. · 2.07 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) is an attractive target for the treatment of tumor. Unlike PKB's ATP-competitive inhibitors, its allosteric inhibitors can maintain PKB's inactive state via its binding in a pocket between PH domain and kinase domain, which specifically inhibit PKB by preventing the phosphorylations of Thr308 and Ser473. In the present studies, MD simulations were performed on three allosteric inhibitors with different inhibitory potencies (IC50) to investigate the interaction modes between the inhibitors and PKBα. MM/GB(PB)SA were further applied to calculate the binding free energies of these inhibitors binding to PKBα. The computed binding free energies were consistent with the ranking of their experimental bioactivities. The key residues of PKBα interacting with the allosteric inhibitor were further discussed by analyzing the different interaction modes of these three inhibitors binding to PKBα and by calculating binding free energy contributions of corresponding residues around the binding pocket. The structural requirements were then summarized for the allosteric inhibitor binding to PKBα. A possible structural mechanism of PKBα inhibition induced by the binding of allosteric inhibitor was formulated. The current studies indicate that there should be an optimum balance between the van der Waals and total electrostatic interactions for further designing of PKBα allosteric inhibitors.Journal of molecular graphics & modelling 12/2013; 48C:36-46. · 2.17 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Akt plays a pivotal role in cell survival and proliferation through a number of downstream effectors; unregulated activation of the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway is a prominent feature of many human cancers. Akt is considered an attractive target for cancer therapy by the inhibition of Akt alone or in combination with standard cancer chemotherapeutics. Both preclinical animal studies and clinical trials in humans have validated Akt as an important target of cancer drug discovery. AREA COVERED: A historical perspective of Akt inhibitors, including PI analogs, ATP-competitive and allosteric Akt inhibitors, along with other inhibitory mechanisms are reviewed in this paper with a focus on issued patents, patent applications and a summary of clinical trial updates since the last review in 2007. EXPERT OPINION: A vast diversity of inhibitors of Akt, both small molecule and biologic, have been developed in the past 5 years, with over a dozen in various phases of clinical development, and several displaying efficacy in humans. While it is not yet clear which mechanism of Akt inhibition will be optimal in humans, or which Akt isoforms to inhibit, or whether a small molecule or biologic agent will be best, data to all of these points will be available in the near future.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 06/2011; 21(9):1309-38. · 3.53 Impact Factor