Oxidative stress markers in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress is thought to mediate neuropathological processes of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and recent data suggest that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). In the present investigation, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that evaluated markers of oxidative stress in individuals with BD, as compared to healthy controls.
A Medline search was conducted to identify studies that measured peripheral markers of oxidative stress in bipolar disorder. Data were subjected to meta-analysis using a random effects model to examine the effect sizes of the pooled results. Bias assessment (Egger's test) and assessment of heterogeneity (I(2)) were also carried out.
Thiobarbituric acidic reactive substances (TBARS) (p = 0.001) as well as NO activity (p = 0.02) were significantly increased in BD with a large effect size for TBARS and a moderate effect size for increase in NO. No significant effect sizes were observed for the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (all p>0.05).
Some caution is warranted in interpreting these results: (1) Egger's test was positive for SOD, suggesting that SOD results may have been influenced by a publication bias. (2) We analyzed the absolute values of each antioxidant enzyme separately and the literature suggests that an imbalance between the antioxidant enzymes is a better indication of the presence of oxidative stress.
The present meta-analysis suggests that oxidative stress markers are increased in BD and that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of BD.
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress can induce abnormal tryptophan metabolism. The present study was mainly conducted to determine the effect of dietary tryptophan levels on oxidative stress in the liver of weaned pigs challenged by diquat. A total of 36 PIC piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets containing dietary tryptophan levels of 0.18, 0.30, and 0.45% for 14 d. On day 8, the piglets were injected intraperitoneally with sterile 0.9% NaCl solution or diquat (10 mg/kg body weight). During the first 7 d of trial, increasing dietary tryptophan levels enhanced average daily gain (P = 0.09) and average daily feed intake (P = 0.08), and decreased the feed efficiency (P < 0.05) of piglets. The growth performance was decreased by diquat injection (P < 0.05). Diquat injection also decreased the activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the plasma and liver (P < 0.05), increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) and urea nitrogen (P < 0.05) concentrations, and enhanced MDA concentration (P = 0.09) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) activity (P = 0.07) in liver of piglets. Increasing dietary tryptophan levels could attenuate the effects of diquat injection on the MDA (P = 0.06) concentration and the activities of SOD (P = 0.09) and GPx (P = 0.05) of the liver, and plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.06) concentration in the piglet. There was a synergistic role for increasing TDO activity in the liver between dietary tryptophan levels and diquat injection (P < 0.05). These results suggest that increasing dietary tryptophan levels could attenuate the oxidative stress of the liver in weaned piglets intraperitoneally injected with diquat via enhancing the antioxidant capacity.01/2014; 5(1):49. DOI:10.1186/2049-1891-5-49
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating mental disorder. However, there are no biomarkers available to support objective laboratory testing for this disorder. Here, a nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabonomic method was used to characterize the urinary metabolic profiling of BD subjects and healthy controls in order to identify and validate urinary metabolite biomarkers for BD. Four metabolites, α-hydroxybutyrate, choline, isobutyrate, and N-methylnicotinamide, were defined as biomarkers. A combined panel of these four urinary metabolites could effectively discriminate between BD subjects and healthy controls, achieving an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.89 in a training set (n = 60 BD patients and n = 62 controls). Moreover, this urinary biomarker panel was capable of discriminating blinded test samples (n = 26 BD patients and n = 34 controls) with an AUC of 0.86. These findings suggest that a urine-based laboratory test using these biomarkers may be useful in the diagnosis of BD.Metabolomics 08/2013; 9(4):800-808. DOI:10.1007/s11306-013-0508-y · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The analysis of cognitive and autonomic responses to emotionally relevant stimuli could provide a viable solution for the automatic recognition of different mood states, both in normal and pathological conditions. In this study, we present a methodological application describing a novel system based on wearable textile technology and instantaneous nonlinear heart rate variability assessment, able to characterize the autonomic status of bipolar patients by considering only electrocardiogram recordings. As a proof of this concept, our study presents results obtained from eight bipolar patients during their normal daily activities and being elicited according to a specific emotional protocol through the presentation of emotionally relevant pictures. Linear and nonlinear features were computed using a novel point-process-based nonlinear autoregressive integrative model and compared with traditional algorithmic methods. The estimated indices were used as the input of a multilayer perceptron to discriminate the depressive from the euthymic status. Results show that our system achieves much higher accuracy than the traditional techniques. Moreover, the inclusion of instantaneous higher order spectra features significantly improves the accuracy in successfully recognizing depression from euthymia.IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics 01/2014; 19(1):1-1. DOI:10.1109/JBHI.2014.2307584 · 1.98 Impact Factor