Preconditioning paradigms and pathways in the brain.

Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.
Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.37). 04/2008; 75 Suppl 2:S77-82. DOI: 10.3949/ccjm.75.Suppl_2.S77
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Preconditioning is a phenomenon in which the brain protects itself against future injury by adapting to low doses of noxious insults. Preconditioning stimuli include ischemia, low doses of endotoxin, hypoxia, hypothermia and hyperthermia, cortical spreading depression, anesthetics, and 3-nitropropionic acid, among others. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying preconditioning has been elusive, but NMDA receptor activation, nitric oxide, inflammatory cytokines, and suppression of the innate immune system appear to have a role. Elucidation of the endogenous cell survival pathways involved in preconditioning has significant clinical implications for preventing neuronal damage in susceptible patients.

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