Statins and prostate cancer prevention: where we are now, and future directions.
ABSTRACT Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that are widely used to prevent and treat atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Recent research from both in vitro and in vivo studies suggests that there is an association between the use of statins and a reduction in the incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer. Several mechanisms of action that might bring about these beneficial effects of statins have been proposed, most of which include direct effects of statins on intracellular signaling. In this Review we discuss the current knowledge on the use of statins to prevent prostate cancer. We will also look at future directions for clinical research on this topic.
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ABSTRACT: Results of previous randomised trials have shown that interventions that lower LDL cholesterol concentrations can significantly reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and other major vascular events in a wide range of individuals. But each separate trial has limited power to assess particular outcomes or particular categories of participant. A prospective meta-analysis of data from 90,056 individuals in 14 randomised trials of statins was done. Weighted estimates were obtained of effects on different clinical outcomes per 1.0 mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol. During a mean of 5 years, there were 8186 deaths, 14,348 individuals had major vascular events, and 5103 developed cancer. Mean LDL cholesterol differences at 1 year ranged from 0.35 mmol/L to 1.77 mmol/L (mean 1.09) in these trials. There was a 12% proportional reduction in all-cause mortality per mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol (rate ratio [RR] 0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.91; p<0.0001). This reflected a 19% reduction in coronary mortality (0.81, 0.76-0.85; p<0.0001), and non-significant reductions in non-coronary vascular mortality (0.93, 0.83-1.03; p=0.2) and non-vascular mortality (0.95, 0.90-1.01; p=0.1). There were corresponding reductions in myocardial infarction or coronary death (0.77, 0.74-0.80; p<0.0001), in the need for coronary revascularisation (0.76, 0.73-0.80; p<0.0001), in fatal or non-fatal stroke (0.83, 0.78-0.88; p<0.0001), and, combining these, of 21% in any such major vascular event (0.79, 0.77-0.81; p<0.0001). The proportional reduction in major vascular events differed significantly (p<0.0001) according to the absolute reduction in LDL cholesterol achieved, but not otherwise. These benefits were significant within the first year, but were greater in subsequent years. Taking all years together, the overall reduction of about one fifth per mmol/L LDL cholesterol reduction translated into 48 (95% CI 39-57) fewer participants having major vascular events per 1000 among those with pre-existing CHD at baseline, compared with 25 (19-31) per 1000 among participants with no such history. There was no evidence that statins increased the incidence of cancer overall (1.00, 0.95-1.06; p=0.9) or at any particular site. Statin therapy can safely reduce the 5-year incidence of major coronary events, coronary revascularisation, and stroke by about one fifth per mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol, largely irrespective of the initial lipid profile or other presenting characteristics. The absolute benefit relates chiefly to an individual's absolute risk of such events and to the absolute reduction in LDL cholesterol achieved. These findings reinforce the need to consider prolonged statin treatment with substantial LDL cholesterol reductions in all patients at high risk of any type of major vascular event.The Lancet 10/2005; 366(9493):1267-78. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that have been proven in randomized controlled trials to prevent cardiac events. Recent retrospective analyses have suggested that statins also prevent cancer. To investigate the effect of statin therapy on cancer incidence and cancer death and to analyze the effect of statins on specific cancers and the effect of statin lipophilicity or derivation. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, CANCERLIT, and the Cochrane Systematic Review Database through July 2005 was conducted using specific search terms. A review of cardiology and cancer abstracts and manual review of references was also performed. Twenty-seven of the 8943 articles (n = 86,936 participants) initially identified met the inclusion criteria, reporting 26 randomized controlled trials of statins, with a mean duration of follow-up of at least 1 year, enrolling a minimum of 100 patients, and reporting data on either cancer incidence (n = 20 studies) or cancer death (n = 22 studies). All data were independently extracted by 3 investigators using a standardized data abstraction tool. Weighted averages were reported as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model (DerSimonian and Laird methods). Statistical heterogeneity scores were assessed with the Q statistic. In meta-analyses including 6662 incident cancers and 2407 cancer deaths, statins did not reduce the incidence of cancer (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.97-1.07) or cancer deaths (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93-1.09). No reductions were noted for any individual cancer type. This null effect on cancer incidence persisted when only hydrophilic, lipophilic, naturally derived, or synthetically derived statins were evaluated. Statins have a neutral effect on cancer and cancer death risk in randomized controlled trials. We found that no type of cancer was affected by statin use and no subtype of statin affected the risk of cancer.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2006; 295(1):74-80. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several preclinical studies suggested a role for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) in the treatment of cancer. The objective of this study was to compare the risk of incident cancer between users of statins and users of other cardiovascular medication. Data were used from the PHARMO database, containing drug dispensing records from community pharmacies and linked hospital discharge records for residents of eight Dutch cities. The study base included all patients with one or more prescriptions for cardiovascular drugs in the period between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 1998. Cases were identified as patients in the study base with a diagnosis of incident cancer and matched with four to six controls on sex, year of birth, geographic region, duration of follow-up, and index date. The analysis was adjusted for diabetes mellitus; prior hospitalizations; comorbidity; and use of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium-channel blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sex hormones, and other lipid-lowering drug therapies. In the study base, 3129 patients were identified and matched to 16976 controls. Statin use was associated with a risk reduction of cancer of 20% (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.96). Our data suggest that statins are protective when used longer than 4 years (adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.93) or when more than 1350 defined daily doses are taken (adjusted OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.91). This observational study suggests that statins may have a protective effect against cancer.Journal of Clinical Oncology 07/2004; 22(12):2388-94. · 18.04 Impact Factor