Article

Psychosocial influences on HIV-1 disease progression: neural, endocrine, and virologic mechanisms.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, UCLA School of Medicine, the Norman Cousins Center, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA AIDS Institute, California 90095-1678, USA.
Psychosomatic Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.09). 07/2008; 70(5):562-8. DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181773bbd
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This review surveys empirical research pertinent to the hypothesis that activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and/or the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) might mediate biobehavioral influences on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression. Data are considered based on causal effects of neuroeffector molecules on HIV-1 replication, prospective relationships between neural/endocrine parameters and HIV-relevant biological or clinical markers, and correlational data consistent with in vivo neural/endocrine mediation in human or animal studies. Results show that HPA and SNS effector molecules can enhance HIV-1 replication in cellular models via effects on viral infectivity, viral gene expression, and the innate immune response to infection. Animal models and human clinical studies both provide evidence consistent with SNS regulation of viral replication, but data on HPA mediation are less clear. Regulation of leukocyte biology by neuroeffector molecules provides a plausible biological mechanism by which psychosocial factors might influence HIV-1 pathogenesis, even in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. As such, neural and endocrine parameters might provide useful biomarkers for gauging the promise of behavioral interventions and suggest novel adjunctive strategies for controlling HIV-1 disease progression.

0 Followers
 · 
95 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban setting. Participants (M age = 44.1 years, 36% non-White) filled out a computer-assisted survey and had health-related data extracted from their electronic medical records. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among the latent factors of adult abuse and partner violence (each comprising indicators of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse) and the measured variables: viral load, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), HIV medication adherence, and emergency room (ER) visits. Mediation was tested for the latent construct mental health problems, comprising depression, anxiety, symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, chi(2)(123) = 157.05, p = .02, CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .06, accounting for significant portions of the variance in viral load (13%), HRQOL (41%), adherence (7%), and ER visits (9%), as well as the latent variable mental health problems (24%). Only 1 direct link emerged: a positive association between adult abuse and ER visits. Findings indicate a significant role of IPV and mental health problems in the health of people living with HIV/AIDS. HIV care providers should assess for IPV history and mental health problems in all patients and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments that include a focus on health behaviors.
    Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 06/2010; 78(3):387-97. DOI:10.1037/a0019307 · 4.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most studies of psychosocial predictors of disease progression in HIV have not considered norepinephrine (NE), a neurohormone related to emotion and stress, even though NE has been related to accelerated viral replication in vitro and impaired response to antiretrovial therapy (ART). We therefore examined NE, cortisol, depression, hopelessness, coping, and life event stress as predictors of HIV progression in a diverse sample. Participants (n = 177) completed psychological assessment, blood draws [CD4, viral load (VL)], and a 15 h urine sample (NE, cortisol) every 6 months over 4 years. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to model slope in CD4 and VL controlling for ART at every time point, gender, age, race, SES, and initial disease status. NE (as well as depression, hopelessness, and avoidant coping) significantly predicted a greater rate of decrease in CD4 and increase in VL. Cortisol was not significantly related to CD4, but predicted VL increase. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating NE, in vivo, to accelerated disease progression over an extended time. It also extends our previous 2 year study by relating depressed mood and coping to accelerated disease progression over 4 years.
    AIDS and Behavior 09/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10461-014-0877-x · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retaining people living with HIV (PLWH) in care over the lifespan is critical to quality and longevity of life. Individual health behavior decisions that affect care retention are complicated and multifactorial. Current health behavior theories are inadequate in isolation to guide retention in care research. Two existing models, Cox's Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior, and Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional Model of Stress and Coping have both guided research with PLWH, although not related to retention in care. Integration of these models may more comprehensively inform care retention research and practice across the lifespan as it incorporates not only intra- and inter-personal characteristics and relationships but also the stress and coping experiences inevitable when living with a chronic illness such as HIV. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC 03/2015; 26(2):100-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jana.2014.11.009 · 1.23 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
5 Downloads