Functional Diffusion Map As an Early Imaging Biomarker for High-Grade Glioma: Correlation With Conventional Radiologic Response and Overall Survival

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 08/2008; 26(20):3387-94. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2007.15.2363
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Assessment of radiologic response (RR) for brain tumors utilizes the Macdonald criteria 8 to 10 weeks from the start of treatment. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a functional diffusion map (fDM) may provide an earlier measure to predict patient survival.
Sixty patients with high-grade glioma were enrolled onto a study of intratreatment MRI at 1, 3, and 10 weeks. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate imaging parameters as a function of patient survival at 1 year. Both log-rank and Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to assess overall survival.
Greater increases in diffusion in response to therapy over time were observed in those patients alive at 1 year compared with those who died as a result of disease. The volume of tumor with increased diffusion by fDM at 3 weeks was the strongest predictor of patient survival at 1 year, with larger fDM predicting longer median survival (52.6 v 10.9 months; log-rank, P < .003; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 5.9). Radiologic response at 10 weeks had similar prognostic value (median survival, 31.6 v 10.9 months; log-rank P < .0007; HR = 2.9; 95% CI, 1.7 to 7.2). Radiologic response and fDM differed in 25% of cases. A composite index of response including fDM and RR provided a robust predictor of patient survival and may identify patients in whom RR does not correlate with clinical outcome.
Compared with conventional neuroimaging, fDM provided an earlier assessment of equal predictive value, and the combination of fDM and RR provided a more accurate prediction of patient survival than either metric alone.

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Available from: Daniel A Hamstra, Sep 08, 2014
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    • "Acquisition sequences for DWI are not completely standardized, but basic techniques are well known and available on systems from all major vendors. There is no established standard for measurement of ADC but recent reports promote voxel-based analysis and volumetric evaluation of ADC (vADC) which is well correlated with cellularity, as shown in gliomas [27,28]. This method also carries the advantages of being less operator-dependent and more reproducible than ROI-based techniques. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) may present various behaviours that define different courses of tumor evolution. There is presently no available tool designed to assess tumor aggressiveness, despite the fact that this is considered to have a major impact on patient outcome. Methods/design: CORIOLAN is a single-arm prospective interventional non-therapeutic study aiming mainly to assess the natural tumor metabolic progression index (TMPI) measured by serial FDG PET-CT without any intercurrent antitumor therapy as a prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) in patients with mCRC.Secondary objectives of the study aim to test the TMPI as a prognostic marker for progression-free survival (PFS), to assess the prognostic value of baseline tumor FDG uptake on PFS and OS, to compare TMPI to classical clinico-biological assessment of prognosis, and to test the prognostic value on OS and PFS of MRI-based apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and variation of vADC using voxel-based diffusion maps.Additionally, this study intends to identify genomic and epigenetic factors that correlate with progression of tumors and the OS of patients with mCRC. Consequently, this analysis will provide information about the signaling pathways that determine the natural and therapy-free course of the disease. Finally, it would be of great interest to investigate whether in a population of patients with mCRC, for which at present no known effective therapy is available, tumor aggressiveness is related to elevated levels of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and to patient outcome. Discussion: Tumor aggressiveness is one of the major determinants of patient outcome in advanced disease. Despite its importance, supported by findings reported in the literature of extreme outcomes for patients with mCRC treated with chemotherapy, no objective tool allows clinicians to base treatment decisions on this factor. The CORIOLAN study will characterize TMPI using FDG-PET-based metabolic imaging of patients with chemorefractory mCRC during a period of time without treatment. Results will be correlated to other assessment tools like DW-MRI, CTCs and circulating DNA, with the aim to provide usable tools in daily practice and in clinical studies in the future. Clinical trialsgov number: NCT01591590.
    BMC Cancer 05/2014; 14(1):385. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-385 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    • "Determining treatment response early on in the treatment cycle is of vital importance for moving toward personalized medicine with the ability to alter doses or change therapy in those cases where the current treatment is seen to be ineffective. The fDM was previously shown to be an effective biomarker for detecting treatment response earlier than current standard techniques that consist of radiological assessment, in most cases at the end of therapy.13 However, in this analysis, a number of limitations have been identified and studied, which indicates the need to exercise caution when interpreting fDM results. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The functional diffusion map (fDM) has been suggested as a tool for early detection of tumor treatment efficacy. We aim to study 3 factors that could act as potential confounders in the fDM: areas of necrosis, tumor grade, and change in tumor size.Methods Thirty-four pediatric patients with brain tumors were enrolled in a retrospective study, approved by the local ethics committee, to examine the fDM. Tumors were selected to encompass a range of types and grades. A qualitative analysis was carried out to compare how fDM findings may be affected by each of the 3 confounders by comparing fDM findings to clinical image reports.ResultsResults show that the fDM in areas of necrosis do not discriminate between treatment response and tumor progression. Furthermore, tumor grade alters the behavior of the fDM: a decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is a sign of tumor progression in high-grade tumors and treatment response in low-grade tumors. Our results also suggest using only tumor area overlap between the 2 time points analyzed for the fDM in tumors of varying size.Conclusions Interpretation of fDM results needs to take into account the underlying biology of both tumor and healthy tissue. Careful interpretation of the results is required with due consideration to areas of necrosis, tumor grade, and change in tumor size.
    Neuro-Oncology 12/2013; 16(3). DOI:10.1093/neuonc/not197 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    • "Functional diffusion map (fDM) was developed to take advantage of these principles on a voxel-by-voxel approach, and have proven to be a powerful tool for predicting the effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy [10,15,17]. An increased ADC has been shown to correlate with a decrease in cellularity as a result of successful treatment [11,18] and/or radiation necrosis [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Radiologic response of brain tumors is traditionally assessed according to the Macdonald criteria 10 weeks from the start of therapy. Because glioblastoma (GB) responds in days rather than weeks after boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) that is a form of tumor-selective particle radiation, it is inconvenient to use the Macdonald criteria to assess the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT by gadolinium-magnetic resonance imaging (Gd-MRI). Our study assessed the utility of functional diffusion map (fDM) for evaluating response patterns in GB treated by BNCT. The fDM is an image assessment using time-dependent changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in tumors on a voxel-by-voxel approach. Other than time-dependent changes of ADC, fDM can automatically assess minimum/maximum ADC, Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST), and the volume of enhanced lesions on Gd-MRI over time. We assessed 17 GB patients treated by BNCT using fDM. Additionally, in order to verify our results, we performed a histopathological examination using F98 rat glioma models. Only the volume of tumor with decreased ADC by fDM at 2 days after BNCT was a good predictor for GB patients treated by BNCT (P value = 0.022 by log-rank test and 0.033 by wilcoxon test). In a histopathological examination, brain sections of F98 rat glioma models treated by BNCT showed cell swelling of both the nuclei and the cytoplasm compared with untreated rat glioma models. The fDM could identify response patterns in BNCT-treated GB earlier than a standard radiographic assessment. Early detection of treatment failure can allow a change or supplementation before tumor progression and might lead to an improvement of GB patients' prognosis.
    Radiation Oncology 08/2013; 8(1):192. DOI:10.1186/1748-717X-8-192 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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