Cyclophilin A mediates vascular remodeling by promoting inflammation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 07/2008; 117(24):3088-98. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.756106
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Oxidative stress, generated by excessive reactive oxygen species, promotes cardiovascular disease. Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is a 20-kDa chaperone protein secreted from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in response to reactive oxygen species that stimulates VSMC proliferation and inflammatory cell migration in vitro; however, the role CyPA plays in vascular function in vivo remains unknown.
We tested the hypothesis that CyPA contributes to vascular remodeling by analyzing the response to complete carotid ligation in CyPA knockout mice, wild-type mice, and mice that overexpress CyPA in VSMC (VSMC-Tg). After carotid ligation, CyPA expression in vessels of wild-type mice increased dramatically and was significantly greater in VSMC-Tg mice. Reactive oxygen species-induced secretion of CyPA from mouse VSMCs correlated significantly with intracellular CyPA expression. Intimal and medial hyperplasia correlated significantly with CyPA expression after 2 weeks of carotid ligation, with marked decreases in CyPA knockout mice and increases in VSMC-Tg mice. Inflammatory cell migration into the intima was significantly reduced in CyPA knockout mice and increased in VSMC-Tg mice. Additionally, VSMC proliferation assessed by Ki67(+) cells was significantly less in CyPA knockout mice and was increased in VSMC-Tg mice. The importance of CyPA for intimal and medial thickening was shown by strong correlations between CyPA expression and the number of both inflammatory cells and proliferating VSMCs in vivo and in vitro.
In response to low flow, CyPA plays a crucial role in VSMC migration and proliferation, as well as inflammatory cell accumulation, thereby regulating flow-mediated vascular remodeling and intima formation.

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    ABSTRACT: Cyclophilin A (CyPA) concentration increases in acute coronary syndrome. In an animal model of acute myocardial infarction, administration of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor was associated with lower left ventricular (LV) CyPA concentration and improved LV performance. This study investigated the relationships between changes in plasma CyPA concentrations and LV remodeling in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We enrolled 55 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute STEMI. Plasma CyPA, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), interleukin-6 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations were measured at baseline and at one-month follow-up. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and at one-, three-, and six-month follow-up. Patients with a decrease in baseline CyPA concentration at one-month follow-up (n = 28) had a significant increase in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (from 60.2 ± 11.5% to 64.6 ± 9.9%, p < 0. 001) and preserved LV synchrony at six months. Patients without a decrease in CyPA concentration at one month (n = 27) did not show improvement in LVEF and had a significantly increased systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) (from 1.170 ± 0.510% to 1.637 ± 1.299%, p = 0.042) at six months. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between one-month CyPA concentration and six-month LVEF. The one-month MMP-2 concentration was positively correlated with one-month CyPA concentration and LV SDI. Conclusions : Decreased CyPA concentration at one-month follow-up after STEMI was associated with better LVEF and SDI at six months. Changes in CyPA, therefore, may be a prognosticator of patient outcome.
    International journal of biological sciences. 01/2015; 11(1):38-47.
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is secreted from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by oxidative stress and promotes VSMC proliferation. However, the role of extracellular CyPA and its receptor Basigin (Bsg, encoded by Bsg) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains to be elucidated. Objective: To determine the role of CyPA/Bsg signaling in the development of PH. Methods and Results: In the pulmonary arteries (PA) of PH patients, immunostaining revealed strong expression of CyPA and Bsg. The PA of CyPA(+/-) and Bsg(+/-) mice exposed to normoxia did not differ in morphology compared with their littermate controls. In contrast, CyPA(+/-)and Bsg(+/-) mice exposed to hypoxia for 4 weeks revealed significantly reduced right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), PA remodeling and RV hypertrophy compared with their littermate controls. These features were unaltered by bone marrow reconstitution. To further evaluate the role of vascular Bsg, we harvested pulmonary VSMCs from Bsg(+/+) and Bsg(+/-) mice. Proliferation was significantly reduced in Bsg(+/-) compared with Bsg(+/+) VSMCs. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that Bsg(+/-) VSMCs revealed reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation and less secretion of cytokines/chemokines and growth factors (e.g. PDGF-BB). Finally, in the clinical study, plasma CyPA levels in PH patients were increased in accordance with the severity of pulmonary vascular resistance. Furthermore, event-free curve revealed that high plasma CyPA levels predicted poor outcome in PH patients. Conclusions: These results indicate the crucial role of extracellular CyPA and vascular Bsg in the pathogenesis of PH.
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