Sphingosine-1-phosphate promotes lymphangiogenesis by stimulating S1P1/Gi/PLC/Ca2+ signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT The lymphatic system plays pivotal roles in mediating tissue fluid homeostasis and immunity, and excessive lymphatic vessel formation is implicated in many pathological conditions, which include inflammation and tumor metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate lymphatic vessel formation remain poorly characterized. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent bioactive lipid that is implicated in a variety of biologic processes such as inflammatory responses and angiogenesis. Here, we first report that S1P acts as a lymphangiogenic mediator. S1P induced migration, capillary-like tube formation, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, but not proliferation, in human lymphatic endothelial cells (HLECs) in vitro. Moreover, a Matrigel plug assay demonstrated that S1P promoted the outgrowth of new lymphatic vessels in vivo. HLECs expressed S1P1 and S1P3, and both RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of S1P1 and an S1P1 antagonist significantly blocked S1P-mediated lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, pertussis toxin, U73122, and BAPTA-AM efficiently blocked S1P-induced in vitro lymphangiogenesis and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization of HLECs, indicating that S1P promotes lymphangiogenesis by stimulating S1P1/G(i)/phospholipase C/Ca(2+) signaling pathways. Our results suggest that S1P is the first lymphangiogenic bioactive lipid to be identified, and that S1P and its receptors might serve as new therapeutic targets against inflammatory diseases and lymphatic metastasis in tumors.
Article: Macrophage-Mediated Lymphangiogenesis: The Emerging Role of Macrophages as Lymphatic Endothelial Progenitors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that macrophages and other inflammatory cells support tumor progression and metastasis. During early stages of neoplastic development, tumor-infiltrating macrophages (TAMs) mount an immune response against transformed cells. Frequently, however, cancer cells escape the immune surveillance, an event that is accompanied by macrophage transition from an anti-tumor to a pro-tumorigenic type. The latter is characterized by high expression of factors that activate endothelial cells, suppress immune response, degrade extracellular matrix, and promote tumor growth. Cumulatively, these products of TAMs promote tumor expansion and growth of both blood and lymphatic vessels that facilitate metastatic spread. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies induce the formation of new lymphatic vessels (i.e., lymphangiogenesis) that leads to lymphatic and subsequently, to distant metastasis. Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that TAMs significantly promote tumor lymphangiogenesis through paracrine and cell autonomous modes. The paracrine effect consists of the expression of a variety of pro-lymphangiogenic factors that activate the preexisting lymphatic vessels. The evidence for cell-autonomous contribution is based on the observed tumor mobilization of macrophage-derived lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP) that integrate into lymphatic vessels prior to sprouting. This review will summarize the current knowledge of macrophage-dependent growth of new lymphatic vessels with specific emphasis on an emerging role of macrophages as lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors (M-LECP).Cancers. 09/2012; 4(3):618-657.
Article: Sphingosine-1-phosphate produced by sphingosine kinase 1 promotes breast cancer progression by stimulating angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic bioactive lipid mediator that promotes breast cancer progression by diverse mechanisms that remain somewhat unclear. Here we report pharmacologic evidence of a critical role for sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) in producing S1P and mediating tumor-induced hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in a murine model of breast cancer metastasis. S1P levels increased both in the tumor and the circulation. In agreement, serum S1P levels were significantly elevated in stage IIIA human breast cancer patients, compared with age/ethnicity-matched healthy volunteers. However, treatment with the specific SphK1 inhibitor SK1-I suppressed S1P levels, reduced metastases to lymph nodes and lungs, and decreased overall tumor burden of our murine model. Both S1P and angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) stimulated hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in vitro, whereas SK1-I inhibited each process. We quantified both processes in vivo from the same specimen by combining directed in vivo angiogenesis assays with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, thereby confirming the results obtained in vitro. Notably, SK1-I decreased both processes not only at the primary tumor but also in lymph nodes, with peritumoral lymphatic vessel density reduced in SK1-I-treated animals. Taken together, our findings show that SphK1-produced S1P is a crucial mediator of breast cancer-induced hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Our results implicate SphK1 along with S1P as therapeutic targets in breast cancer.Cancer Research 02/2012; 72(3):726-35. · 7.86 Impact Factor