Article

Dietary nucleotides and fecal microbiota in formula-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial.

Childhood Nutrition Research Center, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.92). 07/2008; 87(6):1785-92.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dietary nucleotides are nonprotein nitrogenous compounds that are thought to be important for growth, repair, and differentiation of the gastrointestinal tract. A higher nucleotide intake may also have favorable effects on the fecal microbial composition and incidence of diarrhea in infancy. However, few studies have tested this hypothesis with an experimental study design.
We tested the hypothesis that nucleotide supplementation of infant formula has beneficial effects on fecal bacteriology.
Oligonucleotide probes were used to measure bacterial genus-specific 16S ribosomal RNA in stools of a subset of infants (mean age: 20.4 wk) who were randomly assigned to nucleotide-supplemented (31 mg/L; n = 35) or control formula (n = 37) from birth until age 20 wk or were breastfed (reference group; n = 44). The microbial pattern was assessed as the ratio of Bacteroides-Porphyromonas-Prevotella group (BPP) to Bifidobacterium species.
The ratio of BPP to Bifidobacterium spp. rRNA in infants randomly assigned to the nucleotide-supplemented formula was lower than in infants receiving the control formula (mean difference: -118%; 95% CI: -203%, -34%; P = 0.007), but it did not differ in infants who were breastfed. The difference between randomized formula-fed groups was independent of potential confounding factors (P = 0.003).
Our data support the hypothesis that nucleotide supplementation improves the composition of the gut microbiota in formula-fed infants. Because this effect could contribute to previously described benefits of nucleotide supplementation for gastrointestinal tract and immune function, these findings have important implications for optimizing the diet of formula-fed infants.

0 Followers
 · 
141 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human milk (HM) is known as the best nutrition for newborns and support the optimal growth of infants, providing essential substances, nutrients, bioactive and immunologic constituents. HM also grants a favorable microbial colonization with attendant priming/maturation of the gut. The bioactive and immunologic elements of HM demonstrated to protect offspring against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation. Some of these elements are being investigated in order to be used to ameliorate formula milk. A formula milk similar to breast milk may help neonatal gut to build a microbiota near to the one of the breast fed infants, improving the neonate's protection against pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize the most significant bioactive constituents of HM that own natural anti-infectious properties and contribute to neonatal immune defense.
    Early human development 03/2014; 90S1:S57-S59. DOI:10.1016/S0378-3782(14)70019-2 · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pigs from 154 litters (n = 1132, 19 ± 3 days of age, 4.9 ± 1.1 kg of bodyweight) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial design to evaluate two raw materials with nutraceutical properties being used in feeds, spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) and a yeast protein meal, and their effects on growth performance, immune parameters and gastrointestinal adaption of piglets to weaning. Factors included dietary treatments being (1) 5% SDPP (PLA), (2) 3.5% yeast protein meal (NUP) and (3) medicated control (TMC) and parity (primiparous versus multiparous). The treatment groups were imposed from Day 19 through to weaning at Day 27. Selected pigs (n = 720, 28 ± 3 days of age, 7.4 ± 1.0 kg of bodyweight) were weaned and remained on their respective diets from Day 28 to Day 34. From Day 35 to Day 48 all group-housed pigs were offered a commercial weaner 1 diet, and from Day 49 to Day 68 pigs were offered a commercial weaner 2 diet. Growth performance, survival, and serum immunoglobulin G were monitored throughout the nursery phase (Day 28 to Day 68). Adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract in the acute post-weaning phase (Day 28 to Day 34) was assessed in 36 individually housed male weaners, with the effects of feed on structural, digestive, microbial and immune parameters along the gastrointestinal tract determined at Day 34. Pre-weaning feed disappearance was greater (P < 0.01) in multiparous litters independent of diet. In the commercial nursery, total removals (mortality and morbidity) were highest (P < 0.01) in primiparous sow progeny, with pigs offered NUP having greater (P ≤ 0.05) total removals. Pigs offered PLA had superior average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio from Day 28 to Day 34 (P < 0.05). Pigs offered NUP tended to (P = 0.07) have superior average daily gain from Day 35 to Day 49. Pigs offered NUP had higher (P < 0.05) serum immunoglobulin G concentrations at Day 68 compared with pigs offered TMC, with the effect most pronounced in primiparous sow progeny. Individually housed weaners offered PLA consumed more (P < 0.05) feed on Day 30 to Day 31, had shorter relative intestine length (P < 0.05), greater villous height in the medial jejunum (P < 0.10) and lower immuno-pathology scores along the intestine. Pigs offered PLA also tended (P < 0.10) to have increased pancreatic-specific lipase and amylase activity compared with pigs offered NUP. Pigs offered NUP had a higher ratio of E. coli : coliforms in the colon (P < 0.01) and more counts of β-haemolytic bacteria in the medial jejunum (P < 0.05) and colon (P < 0.10). Diets containing either SDPP or NUP offered pigs benefits beyond nutrition relative to the medicated control diet. The benefits of SDPP were highly effective but transient, while the yeast derived protein had a successive or accumulative effect which was more pronounced in primiparous sow progeny.
    Animal Production Science 11/2012; 53(1):75-86. DOI:10.1071/AN12151 · 1.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Most of the initiation and maintenance pediatric formulas commercialized in Spain contain prebiotics and/or nucleotides aiming at achieving beneficial effects on prevention of different pathologies and immune protection, similar to human breast milk. However, according to the current legislation, its inclusion is optional since sufficient scientific evidences supporting its mandatory inclusion is lacking. Objective: To systematically review the scientific evidence from randomized clinical studies with a control group allowing determining the beneficial role for infant health derived from the inclusion of prebiotics and/or nucleotides in pediatric formulas. Methodology: We looked for and selected both original papers and reviews in Spanish and English language of placebo controlled randomized clinical studies published in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct, and Scopus, until October of 2011. Results: We found 43 randomized clinical trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Conclusions: More long-term randomized studies with higher number of patients, and standardized supplemental amounts and experimental conditions are needed to establish healthy statements with stronger scientific support regarding the addition of a mixture of prebiotics (GOS/FOS) and/or nucleotides in pediatric formulas. The current trend to include them in pediatric formulas may be justified based on the currently available evidence, as well as their safety and their presence in human breast milk.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 08/2012; 27(4):1037-1048. · 1.25 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from