Dietary nucleotides and fecal microbiota in formula-fed infants: A randomized controlled trial

Childhood Nutrition Research Center, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 07/2008; 87(6):1785-92.
Source: PubMed


Dietary nucleotides are nonprotein nitrogenous compounds that are thought to be important for growth, repair, and differentiation of the gastrointestinal tract. A higher nucleotide intake may also have favorable effects on the fecal microbial composition and incidence of diarrhea in infancy. However, few studies have tested this hypothesis with an experimental study design.
We tested the hypothesis that nucleotide supplementation of infant formula has beneficial effects on fecal bacteriology.
Oligonucleotide probes were used to measure bacterial genus-specific 16S ribosomal RNA in stools of a subset of infants (mean age: 20.4 wk) who were randomly assigned to nucleotide-supplemented (31 mg/L; n = 35) or control formula (n = 37) from birth until age 20 wk or were breastfed (reference group; n = 44). The microbial pattern was assessed as the ratio of Bacteroides-Porphyromonas-Prevotella group (BPP) to Bifidobacterium species.
The ratio of BPP to Bifidobacterium spp. rRNA in infants randomly assigned to the nucleotide-supplemented formula was lower than in infants receiving the control formula (mean difference: -118%; 95% CI: -203%, -34%; P = 0.007), but it did not differ in infants who were breastfed. The difference between randomized formula-fed groups was independent of potential confounding factors (P = 0.003).
Our data support the hypothesis that nucleotide supplementation improves the composition of the gut microbiota in formula-fed infants. Because this effect could contribute to previously described benefits of nucleotide supplementation for gastrointestinal tract and immune function, these findings have important implications for optimizing the diet of formula-fed infants.

16 Reads
  • Source
    • "According to a recent analysis by Le Huerou-Luron et al. (2010), the prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding in the world between 2000 and 2005 was 90% in the early postpartum, but only 41% at 4–6 months of age, with the highest percentages in Africa, followed by East and South Asia, Latin America and The Pacific, and, finally, Europe. Considerable efforts have been made to mimic the composition of human milk by the addition to formula feeding of living bacteria (probiotics), non-digestible fibers, nucleotides and oligosaccharides (prebiotics ), and bovine lactoferrin in order to induce a breast-fed-similar microbiota colonization in formula-fed infants, with the final aim to stimulate the maturation and proper function of the immune system (Fanaro et al., 2003; Rinne et al., 2005; Singhal et al., 2008; Vael and Desager, 2009). Overall, the implementation of formula food with prebiotics and probiotics has been demonstrated to be effective in changing microflora composition toward the desired breast-feeding pattern and stimulating immune response (Rinne et al., 2005; Sherman et al., 2009). "
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 10/2012; 2:94. DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2012.00094 · 3.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Goat milk, like breast-milk, contains a complex array of nucleotides and nucleosides, which are retained in infant formula made from goat milk [12]. Nucleotides added to cow based formulas improve the composition of the gut microbiota in formula-fed infants [13]. These combined properties of goat milk may contribute to the pattern of gastrointestinal function observed in the present study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This was a prospective cohort study of 976 infants from birth to 12 months of age. Infants were fed breast milk, goat infant formula, cow infant formula, or a combination of formula and breast milk during the first 4 months of age. Data on type of milk feeding and infant growth (weight and height) were collected at birth and at 4, 8, and 12 months during routine clinical assessment. The number and consistency of bowel motions per day were recorded based on observational data supplied by the mothers. Infants fed breast milk or goat or cow infant formula during the first 4 months displayed similar growth outcomes. More of the infants fed cow infant formula had fewer and more well-formed bowel motions compared with breast-fed infants. The stool characteristics of infants fed goat formula resembled those of infants fed breast milk.
    Nutrition research and practice 08/2011; 5(4):308-12. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2011.5.4.308 · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "ing possi - bility that milk has evolved attributes that favor the es - tablishment and dominance of commensal bacteria that provide health and nutritional benefits and that remove undesired species . The discovery of the immune modu - lation and health benefits of nucleotides ( Yu , 2002 ) , which include beneficially modulating the GI bacteria ( Singhal et al . , 2008 ) , led to the inclusion of nucleotides in infant formulas . Other components of milk reported to provide more than energy and nutrients to infants that can modify the resident bacteria include IgA , hu - man milk oligosaccharides ( HMO ) , lactose , lysozyme , and lactoferrin ( Newburg , 2009 ) . A portion of the lactose in milk is not"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) development is guided by genetic determinants established during the evolution of mammals and matched to the natural diet and environment. Coevolution of the host GI tract (GIT) and the resident bacteria has resulted in commensal relationships that are species and even individual specific. The interactions between the host and the GI bacteria are 2-way and of particular importance during the neonatal period, when the GIT needs to adapt rapidly to the external environment, begin processing of oral foods, and acquire the ability to differentiate between and react appropriately to colonizing commensal and potentially pathogenic bacteria. During this crucial period of life, the patterns of gene expression that determine GI structural and functional development are modulated by the bacteria colonizing the previously sterile GIT of fetuses. The types and amounts of dietary inputs after birth influence GI development, species composition, and metabolic characteristics of the resident bacteria, and the interactions that occur between the bacteria and the host. This review provides overviews of the age-related changes in GIT functions, the resident bacteria, and diet, and describes how interactions among these 3 factors influence the health and nutrition of neonates and can have lifelong consequences. Necrotizing enterocolitis is a common GI inflammatory disorder in preterm infants and is provided as an example of interactions that go awry. Other enteric diseases are common in all newborn mammals, and an understanding of the above interactions will enhance efforts to support neonatal health for infants and for farm and companion animals.
    Journal of Animal Science 04/2011; 89(5):1506-19. DOI:10.2527/jas.2010-3705 · 2.11 Impact Factor
Show more


16 Reads
Available from