Viral diversity and dynamics in an infant gut.

College of Marine Sciences, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Avenue South, Saint Petersburg, FL 33701, USA.
Research in Microbiology (Impact Factor: 2.83). 06/2008; 159(5):367-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.resmic.2008.04.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Metagenomic sequencing of DNA viruses from the feces of a healthy week-old infant revealed a viral community with extremely low diversity. The identifiable sequences were dominated by phages, which likely influence the diversity and abundance of co-occurring microbes. The most abundant fecal viral sequences did not originate from breast milk or formula, suggesting a non-dietary initial source of viruses. Certain sequences were stable in the infant's gut over the first 3 months of life, but microarray experiments demonstrated that the overall viral community composition changed dramatically between 1 and 2 weeks of age.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was undertaken with the goal of defining microbial communities in and on the bodies of healthy individuals using high-throughput, metagenomic sequencing analysis. The viruses present in these microbial communities, the `human virome¿, are an important aspect of the human microbiome that is particularly understudied in the absence of overt disease. We analyzed eukaryotic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses, together with dsDNA replicative intermediates of single-stranded DNA viruses, in metagenomic sequence data generated by the HMP. 706 samples from 102 subjects were studied, with each subject sampled at up to five major body habitats: nose, skin, mouth, vagina, and stool. Fifty-one individuals had samples taken at two or three time points 30 to 359 days apart from at least one of the body habitats.ResultsWe detected an average of 5.5 viral genera in each individual. At least 1 virus was detected in 92% of the individuals sampled. These viruses included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, anelloviruses, parvoviruses, and circoviruses. Each individual had a distinct viral profile, demonstrating the high interpersonal diversity of the virome. Some components of the virome were stable over time.Conclusions This study is the first to use high-throughput DNA sequencing to describe the diversity of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses in a large cohort of normal individuals who were sampled at multiple body sites. Our results show that the human virome is a complex component of the microbial flora. Some viruses establish long-term infections that may be associated with increased risk or possibly with protection from disease. A better understanding of the composition and dynamics of the virome may hold important keys to human health.
    BMC Biology 09/2014; 12(1):71. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-4291631291397469 · 7.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the population of eukaryotic viruses in the human gut ("virome") or the potential role it may play in disease. We used a metagenomic approach to define and compare the eukaryotic viromes in pediatric diarrhea cohorts from two locations (Melbourne and Northern Territory, Australia). We detected viruses known to cause diarrhea, non-pathogenic enteric viruses, viruses not associated with an enteric reservoir, viruses of plants, and novel viruses. Viromes from Northern Territory children contained more viral families per sample than viromes from Melbourne, which could be attributed largely to an increased number of sequences from the families Adenoviridae and Picornaviridae (genus enterovirus). qRT-PCR/PCR confirmed the increased prevalence of adenoviruses and enteroviruses. Testing of additional diarrhea cohorts by qRT-PCR/PCR demonstrated statistically different prevalences in different geographic sites. These findings raise the question of whether the virome plays a role in enteric diseases and conditions that vary with geography.
    Virology 09/2014; 468-470C:556-564. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.09.012 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human gut is a complex ecosystem, densely populated with microbes including enormous amounts of phages. Metagenomic studies indicate a great diversity of bacteriophages, and because of the variety of gut bacterial species, the human or animal gut is probably a perfect ecological niche for phages that can infect and propagate in their bacterial communities. In addition, some phages have the capacity to mobilize genes, as demonstrated by the enormous fraction of phage particles in feces that contain bacterial DNA. All these facts indicate that, through predation and horizontal gene transfer, bacteriophages play a key role in shaping the size, structure and function of intestinal microbiomes, although our understanding of their effects on gut bacterial populations is only just beginning.
    Future Microbiology 07/2014; 9(7):879-86. DOI:10.2217/fmb.14.47 · 3.82 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 17, 2014