Article

# Distribution of time-energy entanglement over 100 km fiber using superconducting single-photon detectors.

Edward L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.53). 05/2008; 16(8):5776-81. DOI: 10.1364/OE.16.005776 Source: PubMed

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**ABSTRACT:**To date, all schemes for entanglement distribution needed to send entangled particles or a separable mediating particle among distant participants. Here, we propose a counterfactual protocol for entanglement distribution against the traditional forms, that is, two distant particles can be entangled with no physical particles travel between the two remote participants. We also present an alternative scheme for realizing the counterfactual photonic entangled state distribution using Michelson-type interferometer and self-assembled GaAs/InAs quantum dot embedded in a optical microcavity. The numerical analysis about the effect of experimental imperfections on the performance of the scheme shows that the entanglement distribution may be implementable with high fidelity.Optics Express 04/2014; 22(8):8970-8984. · 3.53 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**In this paper, the energy-time entangled photon-pairs at 1.5 μm are generated by the spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in optical fibers under continuous wave (CW) pumping. The energy-time entanglement property is demonstrated experimentally through an experiment of Franson-type interference. Although the generation rates of the noise photons are one order of magnitude higher than that of the photon-pairs under CW pumping, the impact of noise photons can be highly suppressed in the measurement by a narrow time domain filter supported by superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with low timing jitters and time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) module with high time resolution. The experiment results show that the SFWM in optical fibers under CW pumping provides a simple and practical way to generate energy-time entanglement at 1.5 μm, which has great potential for long-distance quantum information applications over optical fibers.Optics Express 01/2014; 22(1):359-68. · 3.53 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**The paper explores the fundamental physical principles of quantum mechanics (in fact, quantum field theory) that limit the bit rate for long distances and examines the assumption used in this exploration that losses can be ignored. Propagation of photons in optical fibers is modelled using methods of quantum electrodynamics. We define the "photon duration" as the standard deviation of the photon arrival time; we find its asymptotics for long distances and then obtain the main result of the paper: the linear dependence of photon duration on the distance when losses can be ignored. This effect puts the limit to joint increasing of the photon flux and the distance from the source and it has consequences for quantum communication. Once quantum communication develops into a real technology (including essential decrease of losses in optical fibres), it would be appealing to engineers to increase both the photon flux and the distance. And here our "photon flux/distance effect" has to be taken into account. This effect also may set an additional constraint to the performance of a loophole free test of Bell's type—to close jointly the detection and locality loopholes.Foundations of Physics 03/2014; 44(4). · 1.14 Impact Factor

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