Working Overtime is Associated With Anxiety and Depression: The Hordaland Health Study

Medical Faculty, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.63). 07/2008; 50(6):658-66. DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181734330
Source: PubMed


To examine whether long work hours are associated with increased levels and prevalences of anxiety and depression.
Overtime workers (n = 1350) were compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle, and somatic health was included.
Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels and higher prevalences of anxiety and depressive disorders compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.
Working overtime is associated with increased levels of anxiety and depression. The working groups differed significantly regarding several factors including income and heavy manual labor.

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Available from: Grethe Tell, Oct 06, 2014
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    • ", [2], [3], [4], [6], [7], [8]. Fortunately, with the benefit of our overtime planning analysis, it is revealed that there is a much more compelling alternative. "
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    ABSTRACT: Software Engineering and development is well-known to suffer from unplanned overtime, which causes stress and illness in engineers and can lead to poor quality software with higher defects. In this paper, we introduce a multi-objective decision support approach to help balance project risks and duration against overtime, so that software engineers can better plan overtime. We evaluate our approach on 6 real world software projects, drawn from 3 organisations using 3 standard evaluation measures and 3 different approaches to risk assessment. Our results show that our approach was significantly better (p
    ICSE 2013; 05/2013
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    • "For example, jobs that combine high demand and low control are known to increase the risk of both depression and occupational injury. Long working hours can coincide with high job demand and excessive workload [34], both of which may be risk factors for both injury and depression. "
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    BMC Public Health 04/2013; 13(1):303. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-303 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "pdf; 52000001f1nw.pdf; f1k7-att/2r9852000001f1o2.pdf (accessed on August 1, 2011) words, the observed declines in averaged working hours and the prevalence of long hour work did not necessarily mean that workers' workloads have been reduced. While long working hours were found to be associated with increased risks of occupational injuries, cardiovascular diseases, mental illnesses , and other psychosomatic symptoms in many studies (Nakanishi et al. 2001; Liu and Tanaka 2002; Dembe et al. 2005; Kleppa et al. 2008; Park et al. 2010; Virtanen et al. 2010), other studies did not find such relationships (Allen et al. 2007; Ogasawara et al. 2011). We suggested that in addition of the length of work hours, other types of workloads, such as work pace, work intensity, emotional demands, cognitive demands, should be considered when assessing the overall workloads (Pejtersen et al. 2010). "
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    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 11/2011; 85(7):791-9. DOI:10.1007/s00420-011-0722-8 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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