Working Overtime is Associated With Anxiety and Depression: The Hordaland Health Study

Medical Faculty, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.63). 07/2008; 50(6):658-66. DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181734330
Source: PubMed


To examine whether long work hours are associated with increased levels and prevalences of anxiety and depression.
Overtime workers (n = 1350) were compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle, and somatic health was included.
Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels and higher prevalences of anxiety and depressive disorders compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.
Working overtime is associated with increased levels of anxiety and depression. The working groups differed significantly regarding several factors including income and heavy manual labor.

Download full-text


Available from: Grethe Tell, Oct 06, 2014
154 Reads
  • Source
    • ", [2], [3], [4], [6], [7], [8]. Fortunately, with the benefit of our overtime planning analysis, it is revealed that there is a much more compelling alternative. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Software Engineering and development is well-known to suffer from unplanned overtime, which causes stress and illness in engineers and can lead to poor quality software with higher defects. In this paper, we introduce a multi-objective decision support approach to help balance project risks and duration against overtime, so that software engineers can better plan overtime. We evaluate our approach on 6 real world software projects, drawn from 3 organisations using 3 standard evaluation measures and 3 different approaches to risk assessment. Our results show that our approach was significantly better (p
    ICSE 2013; 05/2013
  • Source
    • "For example, jobs that combine high demand and low control are known to increase the risk of both depression and occupational injury. Long working hours can coincide with high job demand and excessive workload [34], both of which may be risk factors for both injury and depression. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Empirical evidence describing the psychosocial consequences of occupational injury is still limited. The effect of occupational injury on depression might pose unique challenges in workers compared with other kinds of injury. This study aimed to assess the differential impact of workplace injury compared with non-workplace injury on depression over time, and to identify the potential risk factors associated with post-injury depression in the US working population. Methods Using pooled panel data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2000–2006, a total of 35,155 workers aged 18–64 years who had been followed for about 18 months in each panel were analyzed. Injuries in the 4–5 months before baseline, and subsequent depression incidence during follow-up, were identified using ICD-9 codes for the medical conditions captured in personal interviews. A discrete time-proportional odds model was used. Results A total of 5.5% of workers with occupational injury at baseline reported depression at follow-up, compared with 4.7% of workers with non-occupational injury and 3.1% of workers without injuries. Those with occupational injuries had more severe injuries and required longer treatment, compared with those with non-occupational injuries. Only 39% of workers with workplace injuries were paid Workers’ Compensation (WC). The association between injury and depression appeared to be stronger for workplace injury, and the adjusted odds ratio for depression was 1.72 for those with occupational injury (95% CI: 1.27–2.32), and 1.36 for those with non-occupational injury (95% CI: 1.07–1.65) compared with the no-injury group, after controlling for relevant covariates. Occupational injury was associated with higher odds of developing depression over time. WC as a source of medical payment was associated with 33% higher odds of developing depression (95% CI: 1.01–1.74). Part-time work, shorter job tenure, and long working hours were independently associated with post-injury depression risk. Conclusions Workers with occupational injury were more likely to become depressed than those with non-occupational injury. The psychosocial consequences of occupational injury, including depression, deserve further exploration to adequately support those injured at work. This finding also emphasizes a need for early intervention to reduce the burden of depression associated with occupational injury.
    BMC Public Health 04/2013; 13(1):303. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-303 · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "pdf; 52000001f1nw.pdf; f1k7-att/2r9852000001f1o2.pdf (accessed on August 1, 2011) words, the observed declines in averaged working hours and the prevalence of long hour work did not necessarily mean that workers' workloads have been reduced. While long working hours were found to be associated with increased risks of occupational injuries, cardiovascular diseases, mental illnesses , and other psychosomatic symptoms in many studies (Nakanishi et al. 2001; Liu and Tanaka 2002; Dembe et al. 2005; Kleppa et al. 2008; Park et al. 2010; Virtanen et al. 2010), other studies did not find such relationships (Allen et al. 2007; Ogasawara et al. 2011). We suggested that in addition of the length of work hours, other types of workloads, such as work pace, work intensity, emotional demands, cognitive demands, should be considered when assessing the overall workloads (Pejtersen et al. 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Health problems caused by long working hours and work stress have gained growing concerns in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. In all the three countries, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and mental disorders attributed to heavy workloads or stressful work events are considered compensable occupational diseases by workers' compensation systems. This study compared the trends of such cases and correlated the trends with changes in working hours during the period from 1980 to 2010. Data on occupational diseases were obtained from official statistics of the workers' compensation systems. Information on working hours was obtained from official statistics and national surveys of employees. While occupational cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and mental disorders attributed to work stress were increasingly compensated in all the three countries, the averaged working hours and the percentage of employees with long working hours had been in decline discordantly. Findings of this study suggested that reducing working hours alone is unlikely to reduce the problems of work stress. There is an urgent need to monitor and regulate a wider range of psychosocial work hazards. Especially, precarious employment and its associated health risks should be targeted for effective prevention of stress-related health problems in the workplace.
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 11/2011; 85(7):791-9. DOI:10.1007/s00420-011-0722-8 · 2.20 Impact Factor
Show more