Birefringence and optical power confinement in horizontal multi-slot waveguides made of Si and SiO2
ABSTRACT Through simulations and measurements, we show that in multi-slot thin film waveguides, the TM polarized modes can be confined mostly in the low refractive index layers of the waveguide. The structure consisted of alternating layers of a-Si and SiO(2), in the thickness range between 3 and 40 nm, for which the slots were the SiO(2) layers. Simulations were performed using the transfer matrix method and experiments using the m-line technique at 1.55 mum. The dependence of the birefringence and of the power confinement in the slots was studied as a function of the waveguide thickness, the Si and SiO(2) layer thicknesses, and the SiO(2) / Si layer thickness ratio. We find a large birefringence-a refractive index difference between TE and TM modes-as large as 0.8. For TM polarized modes, up to ~ 85% of the total power in the fundamental mode can be confined in the slots.
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ABSTRACT: This article describes the first demonstration of ring resonators based on vertical multiple-slot silicon nitride waveguides. The design, fabrication and measurement of multiple-slot waveguide ring resonators with several coupling distances and ring radii (70 microm, 90 microm and 110 microm) have been carried out for TE and TM polarizations at the wavelength of 1.3 microm. Quality factors of 6,100 and 16,000 have been achieved for TE and TM polarization, respectively.Optics Express 11/2008; 16(22):17237-42. DOI:10.1364/OE.16.017237 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Optical filters encompass a vast array of devices and structures for a wide variety of applications. Generally speaking, an optical filter is some structure that applies a designed amplitude and phase transform to an incident signal. Different classes of filters have vastly divergent characteristics, and one of the challenges in the optical design process is identifying the ideal filter for a given application and optimizing it to obtain a specific response. In particular, it is highly advantageous to obtain a filter that can be seamlessly integrated into an overall device package without requiring exotic fabrication steps, extremely sensitive alignments, or complicated conversions between optical and electrical signals. This dissertation explores three classes of nano-scale optical filters in an effort to obtain different types of dispersive response functions. First, dispersive waveguides are designed using a sub-wavelength periodic structure to transmit a single TE propagating mode with very high second order dispersion. Next, an innovative approach for decoupling waveguide trajectories from Bragg gratings is outlined and used to obtain a uniform second-order dispersion response while minimizing fabrication limitations. Finally, high Q-factor microcavities are coupled into axisymmetric pillar structures that offer extremely high group delay over very narrow transmission bandwidths. While these three novel filters are quite diverse in their operation and target applications, they offer extremely compact structures given the magnitude of the dispersion or group delay they introduce to an incident signal. They are also designed and structured as to be formed on an optical wafer scale using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. A number of frequency-domain numerical simulation methods are developed to fully characterize and model each of the different filters. The complete filter response, which includes the dispersion and delay characteristics and optical coupling, is used to evaluate each filter design concept. However, due to the complex nature of the structure geometries and electromagnetic interactions, an iterative optimization approach is required to improve the structure designs and obtain a suitable response. To this end, a Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is developed and applied to the simulated filter responses to generate optimal filter designs.
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ABSTRACT: Pedestal-type microdisk resonators with SiN disks and SiO2 slots are fabricated. By selective etching, air-slots for maximum light confinement could be obtained. Resonant modes for both oxide- and air slots were measured using tapered fiber coupling.01/2009; DOI:10.1109/GROUP4.2009.5338301