Three-dimensional in vivo imaging by a handheld dual-axes confocal microscope.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.53). 06/2008; 16(10):7224-32. DOI: 10.1364/OE.16.007224
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We present a handheld dual-axes confocal microscope that is based on a two-dimensional microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner. It performs reflectance and fluorescence imaging at 488 nm wavelength, with three-dimensional imaging capability. The fully packaged microscope has a diameter of 10 mm and acquires images at 4 Hz frame rate with a maximum field of view of 400 microm x 260 microm. The transverse and axial resolutions of the handheld probe are 1.7 microm and 5.8 microm, respectively. Capability to perform real time small animal imaging is demonstrated in vivo in transgenic mice.

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