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Contrasting patterns in species boundaries evolution of anemonefishes (Amphiprioninae, Pomacentridae) in the centre of marine biodiversity,

Biotechnology and Molecular Genetics, FB2-UFT, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse UFT, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (Impact Factor: 4.02). 05/2008; 49(1):268-76. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.04.024
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Many species of coral reef fishes are distinguished by their colour patterns, but genetic studies have shown these are not always good predictors of genetic isolation and species boundaries. The genus Amphiprion comprises several species that have very similar colouration. Additionally, morphological characters are so variable, that sibling species can show a considerable overlap, making it difficult to differentiate them. In this study, we investigated the species boundaries between the sibling species pair A. ocellaris and A. percula (Subgenus Actinicola) and three closely related species of the subgenus Phalerebus (A. akallopisos, A. perideraion, A. sandaracinos) by phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b and control region sequences. These two subgenera show strong differences in their patterns of species boundaries. Within the A. ocellaris/A. percula complex, five clades were found representing different geographic regions. Two major divergences both with genetic distances of 4-7% in cty b and 17-19% in the d-loop region indicate the presence of three instead of two deep evolutionary lineages. The species of the subgenus Phalerebus show three monophyletic clades, independent of the geographical location of origin, but concordant to the morphological species classification. The genetic distances between the Phalerebus species were 2-5% in cty b and 10-12% in the control region.

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    • "While each MU represents one of the study species exclusively, most are not partitioned by geography. This complex underlying phylogenetic structure may have occurred because anemonefish have both selfrecruitment at demographic scales (Jones et al. 2005) and interpopulation connectivity at longer evolutionary timescales (Timm et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Endemic species on islands are considered at risk of extinction for several reasons, including limited dispersal abilities, small population sizes, and low genetic diversity. We used mitochondrial DNA (D-Loop) and 17 microsatellite loci to explore the evolutionary relationship between an endemic anemonefish, Amphiprion mccullochi (restricted to isolated locations in subtropical eastern Australia) and its more widespread sister species, A. akindynos. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogram showed reciprocal monophyly was lacking for the two species, with two supported groups, each containing representatives of both species, but no shared haplotypes and up to 12 species, but not location-specific management units (MUs). Population genetic analyses suggested evolutionary connectivity among samples of each species (mtDNA), while ecological connectivity was only evident among populations of the endemic, A. mccullochi. This suggests higher dispersal between endemic anemonefish populations at both evolutionary and ecological timeframes, despite separation by hundreds of kilometers. The complex mtDNA structure results from historical hybridization and introgression in the evolutionary past of these species, validated by msat analyses (NEWHYBRIDS, STRUCTURE, and DAPC). Both species had high genetic diversities (mtDNA h > 0.90, π = 4.0%; msat genetic diversity, gd > 0.670). While high gd and connectivity reduce extinction risk, identifying and protecting populations implicated in generating reticulate structure among these species should be a conservation priority.
    Ecology and Evolution 07/2012; 2(7):1592-604. DOI:10.1002/ece3.251 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    • "However, phylogenetic and phylogeographic tests of the above hypotheses also vary in their conclusions, seemingly dependent on the taxon, methodology and sampling strategy. Some taxa appear to show an abundance of peripatric speciation (e.g., [53] [54]) while others seem to be diverging within the Coral Triangle (e.g.,[29] [34] [55]). Many taxa show evidence that the extensive and varied habitats of the Coral Triangle help to lower their risk of extinction [25] [26] while there is molecular and paleontological evidence of frequent local extinctions on peripheral islands [56] [57] [58] [59] [60]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Extreme concentration of marine biodiversity and exploitation of marine resources in the Coral Triangle pose challenges to biogeographers and resource managers. Comparative phylogeography provides a powerful tool to test biogeographic hypotheses evoked to explain species richness in the Coral Triangle. It can also be used to delineate management units for marine resources. After about a decade of phylogeographical studies, patterns for the Coral Triangle are emerging. Broad connectivity in some species support the notion that larvae have maintained gene flow among distant populations for long periods. Other phylogeographic patterns suggest vicariant events resulting from Pleistocene sea level fluctuations, which have, at least occasionally, resulted in speciation. Divergence dates ranging back to the Miocene suggest that changing land configurations may have precipitated an explosion of species diversification. A synthesis of the marine phylogeographic studies reveals repeated patterns that corroborate hypothesized biogeographic processes and suggest improved management schemes for marine resources.
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    • "However, phylogenetic and phylogeographic tests of the above hypotheses also vary in their conclusions, seemingly dependent on the taxon, methodology and sampling strategy. Some taxa appear to show an abundance of peripatric speciation (e.g., [53] [54]) while others seem to be diverging within the Coral Triangle (e.g.,[29] [34] [55]). Many taxa show evidence that the extensive and varied habitats of the Coral Triangle help to lower their risk of extinction [25] [26] while there is molecular and paleontological evidence of frequent local extinctions on peripheral islands [56] [57] [58] [59] [60]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extreme concentration of marine biodiversity and exploitation of marine resources in the Coral Triangle pose challenges to biogeographers and resource managers. Comparative phylogeography provides a powerful tool to test biogeographic hypotheses evoked to explain species richness in the Coral Triangle. It can also be used to delineate management units for marine resources. After about a decade of phylogeographical studies, patterns for the Coral Triangle are emerging. Broad connectivity in some species support the notion that larvae have maintained gene flow among distant populations for long periods. Other phylogeographic patterns suggest vicariant events resulting from Pleistocene sea level fluctuations, which have, at least occasionally, resulted in speciation. Divergence dates ranging back to the Miocene suggest that changing land configurations may have precipitated an explosion of species diversification. A synthesis of the marine phylogeographic studies reveals repeated patterns that corroborate hypothesized biogeographic processes and suggest improved management schemes for marine resources.
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