A simple model of pathogen-immune dynamics including specific and non-specific immunity.

Department of Mathematics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, Trento 38050, Italy.
Mathematical Biosciences (Impact Factor: 1.49). 06/2008; 214(1-2):73-80. DOI: 10.1016/j.mbs.2008.04.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We present and analyze a model for the dynamics of the interactions between a pathogen and its host's immune response. The model consists of two differential equations, one for pathogen load, the other one for an index of specific immunity. Differently from other simple models in the literature, this model exhibits, according to the hosts' or pathogen's parameter values, or to the initial infection size, a rich repertoire of behaviours: immediate clearing of the pathogen through aspecific immune response; or acute infection followed by clearing of the pathogen through specific immune response; or uncontrolled infections; or acute infection followed by convergence to a stable state of chronic infection; or periodic solutions with intermittent acute infections. The model can also mimic some features of immune response after vaccination. This model could be a basis on which to build epidemic models including immunological features.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper proposes an approach for building epidemiological models that incorporate the intra-host pathogen-immunity dynamics. The infected population is structured in terms of pathogen load and level of immunity, and the initial infection load may depend on the load of the individual from whom the infection is acquired. In particular, we focus on the case in which the initial inoculum is taken proportional to the load of the infectant. Possible reinfections are disregarded. Such an approach is applied to formulate an epidemic model with isolation in a closed population by introducing a specific intra-host dynamics. A numerical scheme for the solution of model equations is developed, and some numerical results illustrating the role of the initial inoculum, of the isolation threshold and of the pathogen dynamics on the epidemic evolution are presented. From the simulations the distributions of latency, infectivity, and isolation times can be also derived; however the predictions of the present models differ qualitatively from those of traditional SEIHR models with distributed latency, infectivity and isolation periods.
    Journal of Mathematical Biology 03/2014; 70(3). DOI:10.1007/s00285-014-0769-8 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a simple phenomenological within-host model describing both the interaction between a pathogen and the immune system and the waning of immunity after clearing of the pathogen. We implement the model into a Bayesian hierarchical framework to estimate its parameters for pertussis using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We show that the model captures some essential features of the kinetics of titers of IgG against pertussis toxin. We identify a threshold antibody level that separates a large increase in antibody level upon infection from a small increase and accordingly might be interpreted as a threshold separating clinical from subclinical infections. We contrast predictions of the model with observations reported in the literature and based on independent data and find a remarkable correspondence.
    Epidemics 08/2014; 9. DOI:10.1016/j.epidem.2014.08.002 · 2.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sustained and transient oscillations are frequently observed in clinical data for immune responses in viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus. To account for these oscillations, we incorporate the time lag needed for the expansion of immune cells into an immunosuppressive infection model. It is shown that the delayed antiviral immune response can induce sustained periodic oscillations, transient oscillations and even sustained aperiodic oscillations (chaos). Both local and global Hopf bifurcation theorems are applied to show the existence of periodic solutions, which are illustrated by bifurcation diagrams and numerical simulations. Two types of bistability are shown to be possible: (i) a stable equilibrium can coexist with another stable equilibrium, and (ii) a stable equilibrium can coexist with a stable periodic solution.
    Journal of Mathematical Biology 01/2013; 68(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s00285-012-0639-1 · 2.39 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 30, 2014