Descriptive study of non-obese persons with night eating syndrome and a weight-matched comparison group

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3535 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Eating Behaviors (Impact Factor: 1.58). 09/2008; 9(3):343-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2007.12.004
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to characterize the Night Eating Syndrome (NES) and its correlates among non-obese persons with NES, and to compare them to non-obese healthy controls. Nineteen non-obese persons with NES were compared to 22 non-obese controls on seven-day, 24-hour prospective food and sleep diaries, the Eating Disorder Examination and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnoses interviews, and measures of disordered eating attitudes and behavior, mood, sleep, stress, and quality of life. Compared to controls, persons with NES reported significantly different circadian distribution of food intake, greater depressed mood, sleep disturbance, disordered eating and body image concerns, perceived stress, decreased quality of life, and more frequent Axis I comorbidity, specifically anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders. These findings are the first to describe the clinical significance of night eating syndrome among non-obese individuals in comparison to a non-obese control group, and they suggest that NES has negative health implications beyond that associated with obesity.

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    • "009 ) , bariatric surgery candidates ( Adami et al . , 1999 ; Allison et al . , 2008 ; Rand et al . , 1997 ) , and individuals with psychiatric disorders ( Lundgren et al . , 2006 ) . NES is associated with weight gain over time ( Marshall et al . , 2004 ) and depression , par - ticularly depressed mood in the evening ( Birketvedt et al . , 1999 ; Lundgren et al . , 2008 ) . Several , but not all studies have reported poorer weight loss out - comes in individuals with NES participating in behavioural weight loss programmes ( Gluck et al . , 2001 ; Stunkard et al . , 1955 ) . However , one recent study reported similar weight loss outcomes in indi - viduals with NES compared to control participants witho"
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    ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms are near 24-h patterns of physiology and behaviour that are present independent of external cues including hormones, body temperature, mood, and sleep propensity. The term ‘circadian misalignment’ describes a variety of circumstances, such as inappropriately timed sleep and wake, misalignment of sleep/wake with feeding rhythms, or misaligned central and peripheral rhythms. The predominance of early research focused on misalignment of sleep to the biological night. However, discovery of clock genes and the presence of peripheral circadian oscillators have expanded the definitions of misalignment. Experimental studies conducted in animal models and humans have provided evidence of potential mechanisms that link misalignment to negative outcomes. These include dysregulation of feeding behaviours, changes in appetite stimulating hormones, glucose metabolism and mood. This review has two foci: (1) to describe how circadian misalignment has been defined and evaluated in laboratory and field experiments, and (2) to describe evidence linking different types of circadian misalignment to increased risk for physical (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer) and psychiatric (depression, bipolar, schizophrenia, attention deficit) disorders. This review will describe the role of circadian misalignment as a risk factor for disease in the general population and in clinical populations, including circadian rhythm sleep disorders and psychiatric disorders.
    International Review of Psychiatry 06/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.3109/09540261.2014.911149 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition to consideration of comorbidities in treatment planning for individuals with NES, research indicates that weight status represents an important variable in both the expression of night eating symptoms and in response to NES treatment. Marshall et al were the first to show that compared to obese individuals with NES, individuals at a normal body weight with NES reported more severe nocturnal eating symptoms, including more awakenings, more cravings when up at night, and more nocturnal ingestions, as measured by the NEQ.35 Subsequently, Lundgren et al further characterized normal-weight individuals with NES (N = 19), reporting that they consumed 50% of their daily caloric intake after dinner and experienced 13 awakenings (getting up out of bed) and ten nocturnal ingestions per week, on average.36 These figures are higher than those reported among overweight and obese individuals with NES, who have been reported in one sample (N = 46) to consume 35% of their intake after dinner and experience approximately eleven awakenings and eight nocturnal ingestions per week.37 "
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    ABSTRACT: Night eating syndrome (NES) is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night) and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat). As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a "Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified," more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed.
    Psychology Research and Behavior Management 03/2013; 6:1-8. DOI:10.2147/PRBM.S31929
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    • "As reported earlier, the individual differences in circadian typology may influence eating behavior as a zeitgeber (Natale et al., 2008). Studies demonstrated that persons with NES had significantly lower scores on the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), indicating that they had a higher probability of endorsing the eveningness type (Natale et al., 2008; Lundgren et al., 2008). To our knowledge, no studies have examined chronotype in relation to both binge eating and night eating symptoms, which could help clarify the question of overlap between the two disorders. "
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study examined the association between the morningness/eveningness dimension and eating patterns. The sample consists of 100 subjects who were screened at a nutrition clinic and was composed of 77% women; mean age was 39.5 (±11.7) years; and 66% were overweight. Significant bivariate correlations were found between the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) total score and the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). The NEQ and BES were also significantly correlated. Body mass index (BMI) was correlated with the NEQ and BES, but it was not a confounding variable as no associations were found between the MEQ and BMI. To control for potential multicollinearity effects among variables, we also used multivariate regression analysis in which the values of the correlation coefficients were adjusted. Only the BES remained statistically associated with the MEQ. In conclusion, these results suggest that the study of chronotype may be an important issue to be considered when characterizing disordered eating. This study serves as an impetus for examining circadian intake patterns in more detail between those with binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) to help discern these important nosological questions.
    Psychiatry Research 08/2012; 200(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.07.004 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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