A second conserved GAF domain cysteine is required for the blue/green photoreversibility of cyanobacteriochrome Tlr0924 from Thermosynechococcus elongatus.
ABSTRACT Phytochromes are widely occurring red/far-red photoreceptors that utilize a linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) chromophore covalently bound within a knotted PAS-GAF domain pair. Cyanobacteria also contain more distant relatives of phytochromes that lack this knot, such as the phytochrome-related cyanobacteriochromes implicated to function as blue/green switchable photoreceptors. In this study, we characterize the cyanobacteriochrome Tlr0924 from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus. Full-length Tlr0924 exhibits blue/green photoconversion across a broad range of temperatures, including physiologically relevant temperatures for this organism. Spectroscopic characterization of Tlr0924 demonstrates that its green-absorbing state is in equilibrium with a labile, spectrally distinct blue-absorbing species. The photochemically generated blue-absorbing state is in equilibrium with another species absorbing at longer wavelengths, giving a total of 4 states. Cys499 is essential for this behavior, because mutagenesis of this residue results in red-absorbing mutant biliproteins. Characterization of the C 499D mutant protein by absorbance and CD spectroscopy supports the conclusion that its bilin chromophore adopts a similar conformation to the red-light-absorbing P r form of phytochrome. We propose a model photocycle in which Z/ E photoisomerization of the 15/16 bond modulates formation of a reversible thioether linkage between Cys499 and C10 of the chromophore, providing the basis for the blue/green switching of cyanobacteriochromes.
Article: An accessory sec locus of Streptococcus gordonii is required for export of the surface protein GspB and for normal levels of binding to human platelets.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The translocation of proteins across the bacterial cell membrane is carried out by highly conserved components of the Sec system. Most bacterial species have a single copy of the genes encoding SecA and SecY, which are essential for viability. However, Streptococcus gordonii strain M99 encodes SecA and SecY homologues that are not required for viability or for the translocation of most exported proteins. The genes (secA2 and secY2) reside in a region of the chromosome required for the export of GspB, a 286 kDa cell wall-anchored protein. Loss of GspB surface expression is associated with a significant reduction in the binding of M99 to human platelets, suggesting that it may be an adhesin. Genetic analyses indicate that M99 has a second, canonical SecA homologue that is essential for viability. At least two other Gram-positive species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, encode two sets of SecA and SecY homologues. One set is more similar to SecA and SecY of Escherichia coli, whereas the other set is more similar to SecA2 and SecY2 of strain M99. The conserved organization of genes in the secY2-secA2 loci suggests that, in each of these Gram-positive species, SecA2 and SecY2 may constitute a specialized system for the transport of a very large serine-rich repeat protein.Molecular Microbiology 06/2002; 44(4):1081-94. · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monoterpenes, the C(10) isoprenoids, are a large family of natural products that are best known as constituents of the essential oils and defensive oleoresins of aromatic plants. In addition to ecological roles in pollinator attraction, allelopathy and plant defense, monoterpenes are used extensively in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The importance of these plant products has prompted the definition of many monoterpene biosynthetic pathways, the cloning of the relevant genes and the development of genetic transformation techniques for agronomically significant monoterpene-producing plants. Metabolic engineering of monoterpene biosynthesis in the model plant peppermint has resulted in yield increase and compositional improvement of the essential oil, and also provided strategies for manipulating flavor and fragrance production, and plant defense.Trends in Plant Science 09/2002; 7(8):366-73. · 11.05 Impact Factor