Sleep disorders are increasingly recognized in the symptomatology of many neurodegenerative diseases. Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease is a hereditary prion disease featuring cerebellar ataxia, akinetic parkinsonism, pyramidal signs and cognitive decline.
We performed a polysomnographic study (PSG) of sleep and body core temperature (BcT degrees ) in two sisters with GSS.
Our study showed protracted nocturnal awakenings, reduced sleep efficiency and brief daytime naps but also qualitatively preserved slow-wave and REM sleep and substantially normal arousal and periodic limb movements in sleep indices and BcT degrees rhythm.
These findings conflict with those in multiple system atrophy and other prion diseases such as fatal familial insomnia, which enter the differential diagnosis of GSS and are characterized by prominently disrupted sleep-wake and BcT degrees cycles.
"However, legs hyperreflexia from an early disease course has recently been seen in a Japanese GSS patient carrying the P102L mutation . In GSS, altered sleep and temperature rhythms may also be noticed . The PRNP polymorphism M129V has been shown to influence the disease phenotype. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prion diseases are transmissible, progressive and invariably fatal neurodegenerative conditions associated with misfolding and aggregation of a host-encoded cellular prion protein, PrP(C). They have occurred in a wide range of mammalian species including human. Human prion diseases can arise sporadically, be hereditary or be acquired. Sporadic human prion diseases include Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease (CJD), fatal insomnia and variably protease-sensitive prionopathy. Genetic or familial prion diseases are caused by autosomal dominantly inherited mutations in the gene encoding for PrP(C) and include familial or genetic CJD, fatal familial insomnia and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome. Acquired human prion diseases account for only 5% of cases of human prion disease. They include kuru, iatrogenic CJD and a new variant form of CJD that was transmitted to humans from affected cattle via meat consumption especially brain. This review presents information on the epidemiology, etiology, clinical assessment, neuropathology and public health concerns of human prion diseases. The role of the PrP encoding gene (PRNP) in conferring susceptibility to human prion diseases is also discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Parkinsonism with dopa-sensitivity and a correlating DaTSCAN turned out to be due to a D202N mutation which is associated with the Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease.
We report a 51-year old female who presented with left-dominant parkinsonism and a positive DaTSCAN. She was diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's syndrome. Dopaminergic medication reduced her symptoms. In addition, punding-like behavior, deficits in organizing daily life and abnormal sleep behavior were reported. Neuropsychological testing, EEG, polysomnography as well as PET imaging with fluorodexyglucose (FDG), [F-18]-desmethoxyfallypride (DMFP), and [C-11]-6-OH-BTA-1 (PIB) were not diagnostic. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis revealed no 14-3-3 protein, but elevated neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100-beta and a very low phospho-tau/total-tau ratio. Analysis of the prion gene disclosed the rare D202N mutation.
The D202N prion mutation has been associated with GSS pathology and up to now was only reported post mortem. Our patient is the very first case diagnosed in vivo.
Movement Disorders 02/2013; 28(2):241-5. DOI:10.1002/mds.25188 · 5.68 Impact Factor
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