Mitochondrial Morphogenesis, Dendrite Development, and Synapse Formation in Cerebellum Require both Bcl-w and the Glutamate Receptor δ2

Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, USA.
PLoS Genetics (Impact Factor: 7.53). 07/2008; 4(6):e1000097. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000097
Source: PubMed


Bcl-w belongs to the prosurvival group of the Bcl-2 family, while the glutamate receptor delta2 (Grid2) is an excitatory receptor that is specifically expressed in Purkinje cells, and required for Purkinje cell synapse formation. A recently published result as well as our own findings have shown that Bcl-w can physically interact with an autophagy protein, Beclin1, which in turn has been shown previously to form a protein complex with the intracellular domain of Grid2 and an adaptor protein, nPIST. This suggests that Bcl-w and Grid2 might interact genetically to regulate mitochondria, autophagy, and neuronal function. In this study, we investigated this genetic interaction of Bcl-w and Grid2 through analysis of single and double mutant mice of these two proteins using a combination of histological and behavior tests. It was found that Bcl-w does not control the cell number in mouse brain, but promotes what is likely to be the mitochondrial fission in Purkinje cell dendrites, and is required for synapse formation and motor learning in cerebellum, and that Grid2 has similar phenotypes. Mice carrying the double mutations of these two genes had synergistic effects including extremely long mitochondria in Purkinje cell dendrites, and strongly aberrant Purkinje cell dendrites, spines, and synapses, and severely ataxic behavior. Bcl-w and Grid2 mutations were not found to influence the basal autophagy that is required for Purkinje cell survival, thus resulting in these phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that Bcl-w and Grid2 are two critical proteins acting in distinct pathways to regulate mitochondrial morphogenesis and control Purkinje cell dendrite development and synapse formation. We propose that the mitochondrial fission occurring during neuronal growth might be critically important for dendrite development and synapse formation, and that it can be regulated coordinately by multiple pathways including Bcl-2 and glutamate receptor family members.

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    • "The present data provide further evidence supporting the notion that Bcl-2 family members are key regulatory elements of mitochondrial homeostasis [7] [47] [48]. Our study specifically focuses on Bcl-x L . "
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    ABSTRACT: We have used the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y overexpressing Bcl-xL (SH-SY5Y/ Bcl-xL ) to clarify the effects of this mitochondrial protein on the control of mitochondrial dynamics and the autophagic processes which occur after the inhibition of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) with GSK2578215A. In wild type (SH-SY5Y/Neo) cells, GSK2578215A (1nM) caused a disruption of mitochondrial morphology and an imbalance in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by an increase in dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and 4-hydroxynonenal. However, SH-SY5Y/ Bcl-xL cells under GSK2578215A treatment, unlike the wild type, preserved a high mitochondrial membrane potential and did not exhibit apoptotical chromatins. In contrast to wild type cells, in SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL cells, GSK2578215A did not induce mitochondrial translocation of neither dynamin related protein-1 or the proapoptotic protein, Bax. In SH-SY5Y/Neo, but not SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL cells, mitochondrial fragmentation elicited by GSK2578215A precedes an autophagic response. Furthermore, the overexpression of Bcl-xL protein restores the autophagic flux pathway disrupted by this inhibitor. SH-SY5Y/Neo, but not SH-SY5Y/Bcl-xL cells, responded to LRRK2 inhibition by an increase in the levels of acetylated tubulin, indicating that this was abrogated by Bcl-xL overexpression. This hyperacetylation of tubulin took place earlier than any of the above-mentioned events suggesting that it is involved in the autophagic flux interruption. Pre-treatment with tempol prevented the GSK2578215A-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, autophagy and the rise in acetylated tubulin in SH-SY5Y/Neo cells. Thus, these data support the notion that ROS act as a second messenger connexion between LRRK2 inhibition and these deleterious responses, which are markedly alleviated by the Bcl-xL-mediated ROS generation blockade.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 10/2015; 1862(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2015.09.021 · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    • "It is likely that neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors control mitochondrial dynamics because of their influences on neuronal energy metabolism, calcium homeostasis and dendritic and axonal motility. Indeed, a recent study showed that cerebellar Purkinje cells in mice deficient in the glutamate receptor Grid2 exhibit extremely long mitochondria, abnormal spines and synapses, and severe ataxia, providing evidence that glutamate receptor-mediated signalling affects mitochondrial fission and/or fusion (Liu and Shio, 2008). Further studies aimed at clarifing the effects of neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors on the molecular machineries that regulate mitochondrial fission, fusion and movement within neurons, will expand the knowledge of the integration of mitochondrial motility with neuronal functional and structural dynamics. "

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    • "BCL2-like 11 protein is encoded by a gene in the BCL-2 protein family, which play important roles in the regulation of neuronal and lymphocytic apoptosis. BCL-2 deficiency does not affect neuronal numbers in the cerebellum [35], but this protein has been implicated in hippocampal neuronal protection in a seizure model [36]. BCL-2-deficient mice exhibit relatively normal development of the nervous system, but BCL-2 is important for the postnatal maintenance of specific neuronal subsets, including facial motor neurons and dorsal root ganglia [37]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) persist throughout life to replace mature cells that are lost during turnover, disease, or injury. The investigation of NSC creates novel treatments for central nervous system (CNS) injuries and neurodegenerative disorders. The plasticity and reparative potential of NSC are regulated by different factors, which are critical for neurological regenerative medicine research. We investigated the effects of Psoralen, which is the mature fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L., on NSC behaviors and the underlying mechanisms. The self-renewal and proliferation of NSC were examined. We detected neuron- and/or astrocyte-specific markers using immunofluorescence and Western blotting, which could evaluate NSC differentiation. Psoralen treatment significantly inhibited neurosphere formation in a dose-dependent manner. Psoralen treatment increased the expression of the astrocyte-specific marker but decreased neuron-specific marker expression. These results suggested that Psoralen was a differentiation inducer in astrocyte. Differential gene expression following Psoralen treatment was screened using DNA microarray and confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our microarray study demonstrated that Psoralen could effectively regulate the specific gene expression profile of NSC. The genes involved in the classification of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and metabolism, the transcription factors belonging to Ets family, and the hedgehog pathway may be closely related to the regulation.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2013; 2013(1):452948. DOI:10.1155/2013/452948 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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