Colony-stimulating factors in inflammation and autoimmunity.

Arthritis and Inflammation Research Centre and Cooperative Research Centre for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases, University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia.
Nature Reviews Immunology 08/2008; 8(7):533-44. DOI: 10.1038/nri2356
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although they were originally defined as haematopoietic-cell growth factors, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) have been shown to have additional functions by acting directly on mature myeloid cells. Recent data from animal models indicate that the depletion of CSFs has therapeutic benefit in many inflammatory and/or autoimmune conditions and as a result, early-phase clinical trials targeting granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage colony-stimulating factor have now commenced. The distinct biological features of CSFs offer opportunities for specific targeting, but with some associated risks. Here, I describe these biological features, discuss the probable specific outcomes of targeting CSFs in vivo and highlight outstanding questions that need to be addressed.

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