Colony-stimulating factors in inflammation and autoimmunity.

Arthritis and Inflammation Research Centre and Cooperative Research Centre for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases, University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia.
Nature Reviews Immunology (Impact Factor: 33.84). 08/2008; 8(7):533-44. DOI: 10.1038/nri2356
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although they were originally defined as haematopoietic-cell growth factors, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) have been shown to have additional functions by acting directly on mature myeloid cells. Recent data from animal models indicate that the depletion of CSFs has therapeutic benefit in many inflammatory and/or autoimmune conditions and as a result, early-phase clinical trials targeting granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage colony-stimulating factor have now commenced. The distinct biological features of CSFs offer opportunities for specific targeting, but with some associated risks. Here, I describe these biological features, discuss the probable specific outcomes of targeting CSFs in vivo and highlight outstanding questions that need to be addressed.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with growth factor–like properties for monocytes and dendritic cells. Methods: Study subjects were recruited from the hospital in Hilla city. Healthy controls (n=15) and D.M. patients (n=35) were included in the study. Serum levels of GM-CSF and Anti-Insulin Antibody (AIA) measured by using ELISA technique. Results: The serum GM-CSF levels were significantly higher among diabetes subjects as compared with subjects without diabetes and results showed a high significant in serum AIA and glucose levels in patient as compare with control (p=0.009, P=0.001). The serum GM-CSF levels were increased in age group (45-54 years) shows the higher percent (42.85%) of patients with diabetes, with decreased of AIA and GM-CSF level rather than other age groups. Conclusions: There is indirect relationship between AIA and GM-CSF level and that is mean increased AIA and glucose level reflect the reduced GM-CSF level among the diabetic patients may be used as biomarker or use GM-CSF as co-therapy with insulin.
    Advances in Life Sciences. 01/2014; 4(6):260-264.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A successful pregnancy requires that the maternal immune system adapts properly to avoid rejection of the semi-allogeneic fetus without compromising the ability to protect the mother and the fetus against infections. In this review, we describe the role of decidual macrophages in creating a homeostatic environment at the fetal–maternal interface. We also discuss their role in pregnancy complications as well as future possibilities to modulate macrophage function therapeutically. Decidual macrophages are enriched at the fetal–maternal interface and play a major role in the regulation of inflammatory responses and the maintenance of a tolerant environment. Their function is, however, not restricted to immune tolerance, but extends to include functions such as the recognition and clearance of infections, the clearance of apoptotic debris, and tissue remodeling. Decidual macrophages seem to largely function as tissue-resident macrophages that are crucial for maintaining homeostasis and reproductive success.
    American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 01/2015; · 3.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Over the last decade there has been a dramatic shift in the focus of cancer research towards understanding how the body's immune defenses can be harnessed to promote the effectiveness of cytotoxic anti-cancer therapies. The ability of ionizing radiation to elicit anti-cancer immune responses capable of controlling tumor growth has led to the emergence of promising combination-based radio-immunotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. Herein we review the immunoadjuvant properties of localized radiation therapy and discuss how technological advances in radio-oncology and developments in the field of tumor-immunotherapy have started to revolutionize the therapeutic application of radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Cancer letters. 01/2015;