Increased cellular free cholesterol in macrophage-specific Abca1 knock-out mice enhances pro-inflammatory response of macrophages.
ABSTRACT Macrophage-specific Abca1 knock-out (Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M)) mice were generated to determine the role of macrophage ABCA1 expression in plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the innate immune response of macrophages. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in chow-fed Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M) and wild-type (WT) mice were indistinguishable. Compared with WT macrophages, Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M) macrophages had a >95% reduction in ABCA1 protein, failed to efflux lipid to apoA-I, and had a significant increase in free cholesterol (FC) and membrane lipid rafts without induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M) macrophages exhibited enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased activation of the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways, which could be diminished by silencing MyD88 or by chemical inhibition of NF-kappaB or MAPK. In vivo LPS injection also resulted in a higher pro-inflammatory response in Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M) mice compared with WT mice. Furthermore, cholesterol depletion of macrophages with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin normalized FC content between the two genotypes and their response to LPS; cholesterol repletion of macrophages resulted in increased cellular FC accumulation and enhanced cellular response to LPS. Our results suggest that macrophage ABCA1 expression may protect against atherosclerosis by facilitating the net removal of excess lipid from macrophages and dampening pro-inflammatory MyD88-dependent signaling pathways by reduction of cell membrane FC and lipid raft content.
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ABSTRACT: Detection of HCV infection during the window phase of infection, before seroconversion, is important in blood screening. However, a significant delay exists between the time of infection and the development of antibodies. The delay in window period can last up to 70 days. The aim of the present study was to investigate the kinetics of HCV markers during early infection, with detection of HCV core antigen as an early method for diagnosis. The study included determination of HCV RNA by qualitative and quantitative PCR, HCV core antigen detection by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and specific serological markers including anti-HCV IgG and IgM. The study was carried out on 34 patients diagnosed as non A non B acute hepatitis and proved to be hepatitis C by qualitative HCV RNA PCR. Sixteen healthy control subjects were also included. From each consenting patient and control, blood samples were collected and serum was separated and subjected to determination of AST and ALT and the following virological laboratory tests: HCV core antigen detection by ELISA, determination of specific anti-HCV IgM and specific anti-HCV IgG, qualitative and quantitative determination of HCV RNA by second version of PCR. In patients, the median quantity of HCV RNA was 739.1 x 10(3) lu/ml with minimum quantity 2.1 x 10(3) lu/ml and maximum 38352.3 x 10(3) lu/ml. A comparison between the different diagnostic methods revealed that the highest sensitivity was for HCV-core antigen detection (82.4%), specificity was 100% negative predictive value was 72.2% and positive predictive value was 100%. Specific anti-HCV IgG had moderate levels of sensitivity (58.5%), specificity (75%), negative predictive value (46.2%)and positive predictive value (83.3%). The least sensitive method was the specific anti-HCV IgM (29.4%) with negative predictive value 40% but had specificity and positive predictive value of 100% of each. From this study we could conclude the followings: From virological methods, serological detection of specific IgM anti-HCV had the least sensitivity limits, while it had the highest specificity and positive predictive value. Specific anti-HCV IgG had moderate sensitivity and specificity. The most sensitive and specific tool for diagnosis of early HCV viraemia was the detection of HCV core Ag by ELISA when compared to molecular biological methods.The Egyptian journal of immunology / Egyptian Association of Immunologists 02/2004; 11(1):123-9.
Article: Consequences of cellular cholesterol accumulation: basic concepts and physiological implications.Journal of Clinical Investigation 11/2002; 110(7):905-11. · 15.39 Impact Factor
Article: The metabolic syndrome.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome is a common metabolic disorder that results from the increasing prevalence of obesity. The disorder is defined in various ways, but in the near future a new definition(s) will be applicable worldwide. The pathophysiology seems to be largely attributable to insulin resistance with excessive flux of fatty acids implicated. A proinflammatory state probably contributes to the syndrome. The increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease demands therapeutic attention for those at high risk. The fundamental approach is weight reduction and increased physical activity; however, drug treatment could be appropriate for diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk reduction.The Lancet 04/2005; 365(9468):1415-28. · 38.28 Impact Factor