Article

Kallikrein-Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cell Implantation Provides Enhanced Protection Against Acute Ischemic Kidney Injury by Inhibiting Apoptosis and Inflammation

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
Human gene therapy (Impact Factor: 3.62). 07/2008; 19(8):807-19. DOI: 10.1089/hgt.2008.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrate to sites of tissue injury and serve as an ideal vehicle for cellular gene transfer. As tissue kallikrein has pleiotropic effects in protection against oxidative organ damage, we investigated the potential of kallikrein-modified MSCs (TK-MSCs) in healing injured kidney after acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). TK-MSCs secreted recombinant human kallikrein with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor levels in culture medium, and were more resistant to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis than control MSCs. Expression of human kallikrein was identified in rat glomeruli after I/R injury and systemic TK-MSC injection. Engrafted TK-MSCs exhibited advanced protection against renal injury by reducing blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine levels, and tubular injury. Six hours after I/R, TK-MSC implantation significantly reduced renal cell apoptosis in association with decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide levels. Forty-eight hours after I/R, TK-MSCs inhibited interstitial neutrophil and monocyte/macrophage infiltration and decreased myeloperoxidase activity, superoxide formation, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In addition, tissue kallikrein and kinin significantly inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis and increased Akt phosphorylation and cell viability in cultured proximal tubular cells. These results indicate that implantation of kallikrein-modified MSCs in the kidney provides advanced benefits in protection against ischemia-induced kidney injury by suppression of apoptosis and inflammation.

0 Followers
 · 
113 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent upsurge in the interest of breast cancer metastasis is partly attributed to the discovery of novel, yet unclear, mechanisms of breast cancer interaction with sites of distant metastasis such as the bone marrow microenvironment. In this review, we discuss the significance of the interactions between breast cancer cells and cells of the bone marrow. This is a subject of intense research studies aim to provide new methods of treatments and perhaps the identification of new drug targets. This review also discusses the role of inflammation and the bimodal function of the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in the process of tumorigenesis. We bring attention to future prospects in breast cancer research, including the role of microRNAs in cancer quiescence in the bone marrow and the application of microRNAs to basic science discoveries in oncology. Finally, we discuss the cancer stem cell hypothesis, which is not a new idea, but has resurged with investigative questions.
    Journal of Oncology 02/2008; 2008:425895. DOI:10.1155/2008/425895
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that the progression of renal fibrosis is a reversible process. Because inflammation plays a crucial role in the development of renal injury, we examined the effect of kallikrein and activation of the kinin B2 receptor on the reversal of salt-induced inflammation and renal fibrosis in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats. Four weeks after high salt loading, when renal injury was apparent, adenovirus harboring the human tissue kallikrein gene was injected into DSS rats. To determine the role of the B2 receptor in mediating the actions of kallikrein, icatibant, a kinin B2 receptor antagonist, was infused with kallikrein gene delivery. Two weeks after adenovirus injection, salt-induced glomerular sclerosis, tubular protein cast formation, and monocyte/ macrophage accumulation in the kidney were notably reversed by kallikrein. Decreased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression paralleled this observation. Kallikrein gene delivery also dramatically reduced collagens I, III, and IV and reticulin deposition, accompanied by a decline in myofibroblast accumulation and transforming growth factor-beta(1) expression. Moreover, kallikrein reversed salt-induced glomerular hypertrophy and inhibited the increase in levels of the cell cycle-inhibitory proteins p21 and p27. These protective actions of kallikrein were abolished by icatibant, indicating a B2 receptor-mediated event. In addition, kallikrein protected against salt-induced renal injury by diminishing urinary protein and blood urea nitrogen levels. Furthermore, kallikrein gene delivery restored nitric oxide production and suppressed NADH oxidase activity and superoxide generation. These results indicate that tissue kallikrein, through the kinin B2 receptor, reverses salt-induced inflammation, renal fibrosis, and glomerular hypertrophy via suppression of oxidative stress.
    Human Gene Therapy 06/2006; 17(5):545-55. DOI:10.1089/hum.2006.17.545 · 3.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing at the rate of 6-8% per annum in the US alone. At present, dialysis and transplantation remain the only treatment options. However, there is hope that stem cells and regenerative medicine may provide additional regenerative options for kidney disease. Such new treatments might involve induction of repair using endogenous or exogenous stem cells or the reprogramming of the organ to reinitiate development. This review addresses the current state of understanding with respect to the ability of non-renal stem cell sources to influence renal repair, the existence of endogenous renal stem cells and the biology of normal renal repair in response to damage. It also examines the remaining challenges and asks the question of whether there is one solution for all forms of renal disease.
    The Journal of Pathology 01/2009; 217(2):265-81. DOI:10.1002/path.2477 · 7.33 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from