Airway, responsiveness and inflammation in adolescent elite swimmers
ABSTRACT Whereas increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation are well documented in adult elite athletes, it remains uncertain whether the same airway changes are present in adolescents involved in elite sport.
To investigate airway responsiveness and airway inflammation in adolescent elite swimmers.
We performed a cross-sectional study on adolescent elite swimmers (n = 33) and 2 control groups: unselected adolescents (n = 35) and adolescents with asthma (n = 32). The following tests were performed: questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), spirometry, induced sputum, methacholine challenge, eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH) test, and exhaled breath condensate pH.
There were no differences in FeNO, exhaled breath condensate pH, cellular composition in sputum, or prevalence of AHR to either EVH or methacholine among the 3 groups. When looking at airway responsiveness as a continuous variable, the swimmers were more responsive to EVH than unselected subjects, but less responsive to methacholine compared with subjects with asthma. We found no differences in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms between the swimmers and the unselected adolescents. There was no difference in FeNO, cellular composition of sputum, airway reactivity, or prevalence of having AHR to methacholine and/or EVH between swimmers with and without respiratory symptoms.
Adolescent elite swimmers do not have significant signs of airway damage after only a few years of intense training and competition. This leads us to believe that elite swimmers do not have particularly susceptible airways when they take up competitive swimming when young, but that they develop respiratory symptoms, airway inflammation, and AHR during their swimming careers.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Airway epithelial injury is regarded as a key contributing factor to the pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in athletes. The concentration of the pneumoprotein club cell (Clara cell) CC16 in urine has been found to be a non-invasive marker for hyperpnoea-induced airway epithelial perturbation. Exercise-hyperpnoea induces mechanical, thermal and osmotic stress to the airways. We investigated whether osmotic stress alone causes airway epithelial perturbation in athletes with suspected EIB. Twenty-four recreational summer sports athletes who reported respiratory symptoms on exertion performed a standard eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea test with dry air and a mannitol test (osmotic challenge) on separate days. Median urinary CC16 increased from 120 to 310 ρg μmol creatinine(-1) after dry air hyperpnoea (P = 0.002) and from 90 to 191 ρg μmol creatinine(-1) after mannitol (P = 0.021). There was no difference in urinary CC16 concentration between athletes who did or did not bronchoconstrict after dry air hyperpnoea or mannitol. We conclude that, in recreational summer sports athletes with respiratory symptoms, osmotic stress per se to the airway epithelium induces a rise in urinary excretion of CC16. This suggests that hyperosmolarity of the airway surface lining perturbs the airway epithelium in symptomatic athletes.Respiratory medicine 10/2013; 107(12). DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2013.09.020 · 2.33 Impact Factor
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2014; DOI:10.1111/pai.12172 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Airway dysfunction is prevalent in elite endurance athletes and when left untreated may impact upon both health and performance. There is now concern that the intensity of hyperpnoea necessitated by exercise at an elite level may be detrimental for an athlete's respiratory health. This article addresses the evidence of causality in this context with the aim of specifically addressing whether airway dysfunction in elite athletes should be classified as an occupational lung disease. The approach used highlights a number of concerns and facilitates recommendations to ensure airway health is maintained and optimized in this population. We conclude that elite athletes should receive the same considerations for their airway health as others with potential and relevant occupational exposures.Allergy 10/2013; 68(11). DOI:10.1111/all.12265 · 6.00 Impact Factor