Chiu PH, Holmes AJ, Pizzagalli DA. Dissociable recruitment of rostral anterior cingulate and inferior frontal cortex in emotional response inhibition. Neuroimage 42: 988-997

Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.36). 06/2008; 42(2):988-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.04.248
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The integrity of decision-making under emotionally evocative circumstances is critical to navigating complex environments, and dysfunctions in these processes may play an important role in the emergence and maintenance of various psychopathologies. The goal of the present study was to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of neural responses to emotional stimuli and emotion-modulated response inhibition. High-density event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured as participants (N=25) performed an emotional Go/NoGo task that required button presses to words of a "target" emotional valence (i.e., positive, negative, neutral) and response inhibition to words of a different "distractor" valence. Using scalp ERP analyses in conjunction with source-localization techniques, we identified distinct neural responses associated with affective salience and affect-modulated response inhibition, respectively. Both earlier (approximately 300 ms) and later (approximately 700 ms) ERP components were enhanced with successful response inhibition to emotional distractors. Only ERPs to target stimuli differentiated affective from neutral cues. Moreover, source localization analyses revealed right ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) activation in affective response inhibition regardless of emotional valence, whereas rostral anterior cingulate activation (rACC) was potentiated by emotional valence but was not modulated by response inhibition. This dissociation was supported by a significant Region x Trial Type x Emotion interaction, confirming that distinct regional dynamics characterize neural responses to affective valence and affective response-inhibition. The results are discussed in the context of an emerging affective neuroscience literature and implications for understanding psychiatric pathologies characterized by a detrimental susceptibility to emotional cues, with an emphasis on major depressive disorder.

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Available from: Diego Pizzagalli, Feb 13, 2015
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    • "We expected that these alterations would be most apparent in individuals with TBI- MDD, reflecting the combined impact of both disorders. Although we expected controls and participants with TBI alone to show no difference in ERP response between positive and negative emotional stimuli (Solbakk et al., 2005; Chiu et al., 2008), it was hypothesised that ERPs would be modulated depending on emotional valence in participants with MDD and TBI-MDD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rates of major depressive disorder (MDD) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are estimated to be between 20% and 45%, a higher prevalence than that seen in the general population. These increased rates may be due to specific changes in brain function following TBI. Event related potentials (ERPs) are well suited for measuring the electrophysiological differences between groups in areas of cognitive processing impaired in both MDD and TBI, such as response inhibition. The current study presented an emotional Go/Nogo task (with schematic emotional faces as stimuli) to participants with TBI, participants with MDD, and participants with both TBI and MDD (TBI-MDD). Topographical distribution of activity and global field power comparisons were made across stimulus-locked epochs between these groups and healthy controls. The results indicated that ERPs were not altered by TBI alone. Both MDD and TBI-MDD groups showed similar alterations in topographical distribution and global field power in the N2 window, as well as late epoch alterations. The MDD and TBI-MDD groups showed significantly less fronto-central negativity during the N2 window in Nogo trials compared with the control group. The MDD and TBI-MDD groups also showed significantly less global field power in Nogo trials than Go trials during the N2 window while the control group showed the opposite pattern. The MDD and TBI-MDD groups showed no mood-congruent bias in behavioural or ERP measures. The results suggest that TBI-MDD displays similar electrophysiological changes to those found in the MDD group without TBI.
    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 12/2014; 224(3). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.09.008 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    • "to the observation of grand-averaged ERP waveforms (Fig. 2), which were also consistent with prior studies (Albert et al., 2013; Chiu et al., 2008; Leue et al., 2013; Lucci et al., 2013). Since the peak latency is sensitive to high-frequency noise, individual ERPs were filtered by a two-way, zero phase shift, finite impulse response low-pass filter of 15 Hz (the eegfilt.m function in EEGLAB) before ERP latency measurements (Leue et al., 2013; Luck, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: As a key high-level cognitive function in human beings, response inhibition is crucial for adaptive behavior. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that older individuals exhibit greater neural activation than younger individuals during response inhibition tasks. This finding has been interpreted within a neural compensation framework, in which additional neural resources are recruited in response to age-related cognitive decline. Although this interpretation has received empirical support, the precise event-related temporal course of this age-related compensatory neural response remains unexplored. In the present study, we conducted source analysis on inhibition-related ERP components (i.e., N2 and P3) that were recorded while healthy younger and older adults participated in a visual Go/NoGo task. We found that older adults showed increased source current densities of the N2 and P3 components than younger adults, which supports previous hemodynamic findings. Further, such age-related differences in neural activation were successfully separated between the N2 and P3 periods by source localization analysis. Interestingly, the increased activations in older adults were primarily localized to the right precentral and postcentral gyri during the N2 period, which shifted to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the right inferior frontal gyrus during the P3 period. Taken together, our results clearly illustrate the spatiotemporal dynamics of age-related functional brain reorganization, and further specify the exact temporal course at the millisecond scale by which age-related compensatory neural responses occur during response inhibition.
    International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 06/2014; 93(3):371-380. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.05.013 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Affect can interfere with cognitive processes, including executive control and response inhibition [36], and conversely, executive control processes are used to regulate and manipulate the experience and expression of emotion [37]. The emotional go/no-go task assesses both the integrity of inhibition circuitry and potential perturbation by emotion processing, which is particularly relevant to disorders characterized by aberrant sensitivity to affective triggers such as schizophrenia [38]. Firstly, we found that across both participant groups the experimental manipulation of emotional content produced the expected behavioural effect: RT times were longer and accuracy was reduced when distracters were negative (inhibit responses to negative/respond to neutral stimuli). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sex steroids affect cognitive function as well as emotion processing and regulation. They may also play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, the effects of sex steroids on cognition and emotion-related brain activation in schizophrenia are poorly understood. Our aim was to determine the extent to which circulating testosterone relates to brain activation in men with schizophrenia compared to healthy men during cognitive-emotional processing. We assessed brain activation in 18 men with schizophrenia and 22 age-matched healthy men during an emotional go/no-go task using fMRI and measured total serum testosterone levels on the same morning. We performed an ROI analysis to assess the relationship between serum testosterone and brain activation, focusing on cortical regions involved the emotional go/no-go task. Slower RT and reduced accuracy was observed when participants responded to neutral stimuli, while inhibiting responses to negative stimuli. Healthy men showed a robust increase in activation of the middle frontal gyrus when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli, but there was no significant association between activation and serum testosterone level in healthy men. Men with schizophrenia showed a less pronounced increase in activation when inhibiting responses to negative stimuli; however, they did show a strong inverse association between serum testosterone level and activation of the bilateral middle frontal gyrus and left insula. Additionally, increased accuracy during inhibition of response to negative words was associated with both higher serum testosterone levels and decreased activation of the middle frontal gyrus in men with schizophrenia only. We conclude that endogenous hormone levels, even within the normal range, may play an enhanced modulatory role in determining the neural and behavioural response during cognitive-emotional processing in schizophrenia.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77496. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077496 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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