Cranberries and Cranberry Products: Powerful in Vitro, ex Vivo, and in Vivo Sources of Antioxidants

Department of Chemistry, University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania 18510, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 07/2008; 56(14):5884-91. DOI: 10.1021/jf073309b
Source: PubMed


Cranberry products and especially cranberry juice (CJ) have been consumed for health reasons primarily due to their effect on urinary tract infections. We investigated the quantity of both free and total (after hydrolysis) phenolic antioxidants in cranberry products using the Folin assay. The order of amount of total polyphenols in cranberry foods on a fresh weight basis was as follows: dried > frozen > sauce > jellied sauce. On a serving size basis for all cranberry products, the order was as follows: frozen > 100% juice > dried > 27% juice > sauce > jellied sauce. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a major source of sugar consumption in the U.S. and contains both glucose and fructose, potential mediators of oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of the consumption of HFCS and ascorbate with CJ antioxidants or without CJ (control) given to 10 normal individuals after an overnight fast. Plasma antioxidant capacity, glucose, triglycerides, and ascorbate were measured 6 times over 7 h after the consumption of a single 240 mL serving of the two different beverages. The control HFCS caused a slight decrease in plasma antioxidant capacity at all time points and thus an oxidative stress in spite of the presence of ascorbate. CJ produced an increase in plasma antioxidant capacity that was significantly greater than control HFCS at all time points. Postprandial triglycerides, due to fructose in the beverages, were mainly responsible for the oxidative stress and were significantly correlated with the oxidative stress as measured by the antioxidant capacity. Cranberries are an excellent source of high quality antioxidants and should be examined in human supplementation studies.

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    • "Both the dual and the single Folin methods are good for the detection of a wide range of antioxidant compounds in a large variety of plants and plant-derived foods and beverages. The single reagent has been used for phenolic antioxidants from fruits [4] [6] [7], vegetables[8] [9], cereals [7], fruit juices [10] [11] [12], caffeinated beverages [13] [14], alcoholic beverages [15] [16] chocolate [17], herbs and spices [18] [19] and plant extracts [20] by our group and other investigators. The major classification of antioxidant compounds: flavonols, flavones , flavanones, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, isoflavones, anthocyanins , phenolic acids are detected by the Folin methods. "
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    ABSTRACT: The chemistry of the Folin-Ciocalteu is described and two Folin assays (single and dual reagent) are described for the assay of phenols and polyphenols with respect to experimental detail and critically evaluated for pure compounds and for mixtures (plant extracts). The single reagent method was found to be more precise and sensitive. The problem of interferences in the Folin assay was evaluated for both methods. Interferences for the dual reagent methodology can be eliminated by a solid phase removal of phenols using a commercial resin (Oasys HLB) or polyvinylpyrrolidone resin (Polyclar AT). A new basic/acid hydrolysis combed with the Polyclar AT was used to measure the total phenols in a sample as previous methods measured only the phenolic groups not bound as ether or ester groups. A semi-automated method, microplate reader, is described as to the experimental procedure and applicability. Miscellaneous uses of the Folin assay including flow injection, urine analysis and a mixed standard are briefly described.
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    • "Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) from North-America constitutes an excellent agro-resource to combine nutritional properties and biological activities in a same food [1]. Its biological activities are mainly due to its high composition in phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonoids and phenolic acids [2] [3] [4] [5]. In North America and increasingly in Europe, cranberry juice is consumed for the prevention of urinary tract infections due to its antibacterial properties [2] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Enrichment of cranberry juice in anthocyanins by electrodialysis with filtration membrane (EDFM) was investigated. Six filtration membranes (FM) with distinct constitutive materials and cut-offs were tested. The higher enrichment yields in anthocyanins (24%) without any significant depletion of polyphenols from the raw juice were obtained with 2 filtration membranes: (1) polyvinyldiene fluoride (PVDF) with a cut-off of 150 kDa and (2) polyethersulfone (PES) with a cut-off of 500 kDa. EDFM treatment performed during 90 min did not affect the pH and conductivity values of the treated juices. The constant degree Brix obtained after EDFM treatment confirmed that this technology can selectively migrate anthocyanins without affecting the sugar concentration in the juice. Furthermore, the decrease in titrable acidity of the enriched juice improved its organoleptic characteristics. It was also demonstrated that the enrichment in anthocyanins was influenced by the FM zeta potential (ZP). Indeed, for filtration membranes presenting positive surface charge (ZP close to 2–3 mV), repulsions would be established with anthocyanins positively charged and would avoid their electro-migration through the membrane. On the opposite, filtration membranes with moderate negative charges (ZP close to −5 mV) seem to facilitate the electro-transfer of anthocyanins due to the attraction between opposite charges.
    Journal of Membrane Science 12/2013; 448:114-124. DOI:10.1016/j.memsci.2013.06.061 · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    • "Total phenolic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins obtained per 100 g of PC compared well with recently reported values for cranberry pomace (White et al. 2010a,b). Phenolic acid recoveries per kg of fruit were two to three times higher than the results obtained by Viskelis et al. (2009) and similar to those of Vinson et al. (2008). The anthocyanins were within the ranges reported previously (Viskelis et al. 2009; de Pascual-Teresa et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Fresh cranberries were processed by two pilot-scale methods to recover juice and extracts from cranberry pomace. Press cake was extracted with three successive ethanol soaks followed by decanting in trial 1 versus one ethanol soak and solvent removal by decanting and compressing with the bladder press in trial 2. Yields and recoveries of juice, dry juice solids, press cake, press cake extractives (PCEs), polyphenolics and antioxidant capacity were determined relative to the input material of fresh cranberries or press cake. PCEs from both processes exhibited strong dose-dependant vasorelaxant effects on rat aorta rings with EC50 of 2.3–3.9 µg/mL and Emax of 96–98%. PCEs contained three to four times the phenolic acids, tartaric esters and antioxidant activities plus five to 10 times the flavonols and anthocyanins of their respective juice powders. The polyphenolic levels were 121–142, 7–10, 9–11 and 10–19 mg equivalents of catechin, caffeic acid, quercetin and cyanidin-3-glucoside/g of extract, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the PCEs and juices were 201–296 and 64–75 mg trolox equivalents/g powder. Juice yields of 47–58% accounted for only 18–50% of the bioactives recovered from whole fruit. Sequential extraction of the press cake with 95% ethanol and removal of the extract with the bladder press favored high recoveries of polyphenolics with increased antioxidant and vasorelaxant benefits. Cranberries are a rich source of polyphenolics, which correlate positively with bioactivities related to multiple health benefits. These compounds are found not only in the juice, but also to a large extent in the pomace. Green technology was utilized at pilot scale to successfully adapt laboratory methods to extract cranberry pomace and produce water-soluble powders with significantly higher bioactivities than the juices. Yields and recoveries of juice, juice solids, press cake, press cake extractives, polyphenolics and antioxidant capacity were determined relative to the input material of fresh cranberries or press cake. The results could be useful for the industry in determining process feasibility and the economic value of producing products for commercial use. Recovery of these components from cranberry press residues for food, feed and cosmetic uses may be an important step in increasing the overall profitability of the cranberry industry.
    Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 08/2013; 37(4). DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4549.2011.00655.x · 1.16 Impact Factor
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