Addressing the mother-infant relationship in displaced communities.
ABSTRACT Delivering appropriate care to refugee families requires complex care systems and models that take account of the social, cultural, and political dimensions as well as the psychologic dimension. Children born into these families are exposed to consequences of their own past experiences and also may be subject to the transmission of the traumas experienced by their parents. This exposure can lead to alterations in these children's individual creative resources. Early, tailored care should be provided for these families, so that the transmission of the trauma and its consequences can be managed or ameliorated.
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ABSTRACT: Families of refugees tend to evoke many powerful responses in all who come into contact with them. Loss and trauma, helplessness and victimhood, transition and change are some of the main themes that seem to dominate. In particular, in contact with mental health professionals, refugee families are more likely to be seen as ‘traumatized’ and their resilience less acknowledged. In this article I will endeavour to address some issues that contribute to this skewing of our perception of refugee families, especially in the context of supervision.Journal of Family Therapy 12/2002; 23(4):405 - 422. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Childhood psychic trauma appears to be a crucial etiological factor in the development of a number of serious disorders both in childhood and in adulthood. Like childhood rheumatic fever, psychic trauma sets a number of different problems into motion, any of which may lead to a definable mental condition. The author suggests four characteristics related to childhood trauma that appear to last for long periods of life, no matter what diagnosis the patient eventually receives. These are visualized or otherwise repeatedly perceived memories of the traumatic event, repetitive behaviors, trauma-specific fears, and changed attitudes about people, life, and the future. She divides childhood trauma into two basic types and defines the findings that can be used to characterize each of these types. Type I trauma includes full, detailed memories, "omens," and misperceptions. Type II trauma includes denial and numbing, self-hypnosis and dissociation, and rage. Crossover conditions often occur after sudden, shocking deaths or accidents that leave children handicapped. In these instances, characteristics of both type I and type II childhood traumas exist side by side. There may be considerable sadness. Each finding of childhood trauma discussed by the author is illustrated with one or two case examples.American Journal of Psychiatry 02/1991; 148(1):10-20. · 14.72 Impact Factor