The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss studies on soy allergy.
In Central Europe soy is a clinically relevant birch pollen-related allergenic food. Crossreaction is mediated by a Bet v 1 homologous protein, Gly m 4. Additionally, birch pollen allergic patients might acquire through Bet v 1 sensitization allergies to mungbean or peanut, in which Vig r 1 and Ara h 8 are the main cross-reactive allergens. Threshold doses in soy allergic individuals range from 10 mg to 50 g of soy and are more than one order of magnitude higher than in peanut allergy. No evidence was found for increased allergenicity of genetically modified soybeans.
In Europe, both primary and pollen-related food allergy exist. The diagnosis of legume allergy in birch pollen-sensitized patients should not be excluded on a negative IgE testing to legume extracts. Bet v 1 related allergens are often underrepresented in extracts. Gly m 4 from soy and Ara h 8 from peanut are nowadays commercially available and are recommended in birch pollen allergic patients with suspicion of soy or peanut allergy, but negative extract-based diagnostic tests to screen for IgE specific to these recombinant allergens.
"Soybeans (Glycine max) contain about 35% of proteins and at least 21 proteins have been shown to be IgE-reactive. Soybean allergy can occur as a result of primary sensitization, 28 but can also be related to birch pollen allergy through structural similarities between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the corresponding protein Gly m 4 in soybeans (secondary allergy) 30 (Ballmer-Weber and Vieths 2008; Mittag et al. 2004). The symptoms associated with soybean allergy are mostly mild, such as the Oral Allergy Syndrome (OAS), however, severe reactions 32 have also been described (Foucard and Yman 1999; Kleine-Tebbe et al. 2002; Mittag et al. 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soybean (Glycine max) is the world's primary provider of protein and oil and is widely used in foodstuffs. However, the use of soybean in foodstuffs might pose a serious threat to allergic consumers since some proteins can cause allergic reactions. To date mostly ELISA methods are used for testing contamination of foodstuffs with soybean. In view of the complexity regarding allergen detection in foodstuffs and appropriate food product labelling, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the Maillard reaction on the detectability of soybean proteins using commercial ELISA kits. Accumulation of protein-bound carbonyls, modification of reactive lysine residues and severe aggregation as a result of incubation with glucose, in the presence or absence of soluble wheat proteins, were recorded. Moreover, detection of soybean proteins by means of three commercial ELISA kits was strongly altered and was highly dependent on the type of kit used.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 02/2011; 28(2):127-35. DOI:10.1080/19440049.2010.539627 · 1.80 Impact Factor
"The individual profilins and members of the Bet v 1 allergen family (PR-10 proteins) listed in the table have been convincingly demonstrated to be of clinical relevance in ragweed, timothy grass, and birch pollinosis-associated food allergies [3,5,12,13] by in vivo (SPT) or in vitro (mediator release) assays [5,7,26,74-77]. A picture is now emerging in which profilins seem to be responsible for pollinosis-associated allergy to non-Rosaceae fruits (ragweed Amb a 8 and timothy grass Phl p 12). PR-10 proteins (Bet v 1) and to a minor extent profilins (Bet v 2) appear to be involved in food incompatibilities associated with birch pollinosis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The panallergen concept encompasses families of related proteins, which are involved in general vital processes and thus, widely distributed throughout nature. Plant panallergens share highly conserved sequence regions, structure, and function. They are responsible for many IgE cross-reactions even between unrelated pollen and plant food allergen sources. Although usually considered as minor allergens, sensitization to panallergens might be problematic as it bears the risk of developing multiple sensitizations. Clinical manifestations seem to be tightly connected with geographical and exposure factors. Future population- and disease-based screenings should provide new insights on panallergens and their contribution to disease manifestations. Such information requires molecule-based diagnostics and will be valuable for developing patient-tailored prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. In this article, we focus on profilins, non-specific lipid transfer proteins, polcalcins, and Bet v 1-related proteins and discuss possible consequences of panallergen sensitization for the allergic patient. Based on their pattern of IgE cross-reactivity, which is reflected by their distribution in the plant kingdom, we propose a novel classification of panallergens into ubiquitously spread "real panallergens" (e.g. profilins) and widespread "eurallergens" (e.g. polcalcins). "Stenallergens" display more limited distribution and cross-reactivity patterns, and "monallergens" are restricted to a single allergen source.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In den letzten Jahren wurden vermehrt allergische Reaktionen beim Verzehr von Sojaprodukten beobachtet. Aufgrund einer Kreuzreaktion zwischen dem Birkenpollenallergen Bet v 1 und dem Sojaallergen Gly m 4 haben Birkenpollenallergiker ein besonderes Risiko, eine Sojaallergie zu entwickeln. Schwere klinische Reaktionen auf Soja wurden auch mit Sensibilisierungen auf die Sojaspeicherproteine Gly m 5 und Gly m 6 assoziiert. Eine Allergenkarenz sollte insbesondere eiweißreiche, nicht fermentierte Produkte (z. B. Getränke) betreffen. Studien zum Einsatz einer spezifischen Immuntherapie (SIT) gegen das kreuzreagierende Birkenpollenallergen bei der birkenassoziierten Nahrungsmittelallergie (NMA) wurden bisher nun in Hinblick auf die Apfel- und die Haselnussallergie durchgeführt. Nur ein Teil der Studien konnte eine Wirksamkeit der SIT auf die pollenassoziierte NMA zeigen. Diese Resultate werden kritisch im Hinblick auf die Fallzahl, das Studiendesign und die verwendeten Prüfpräparate diskutiert. Der Einsatz einer SIT mit 80 µg der gefalteten Variante (FV) des rekombinanten Bet v 1 bei der birkenassoziierten Sojaallergie ist Gegenstand einer aktuellen Multicenterstudie (BASALIT).
Der Hautarzt 04/2012; 63(4). DOI:10.1007/s00105-011-2267-x · 0.56 Impact Factor
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