Brain activation pattern according to exercise complexity: a functional MRI study.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the areas of brain activation between complex and simple exercises in a unimanual hand and to assess the possibility of an exercise task for paretic hands following stroke. The subjects included 11 healthy right-handed volunteers. The complex exercise was a wooden ball rotation task with the unimanual hand and the simple exercise was a hand grasp task performed during a functional MRI scan. Stronger activation of the left primary sensorimotor cortex, the left premotor area, and the ipsilateral cerebellum emerged when the complex movement was performed. Ipsilateral activity was located in the primary sensory cortex and premotor area, and contralateral activity was shown in the left cerebellum. These results suggest that a unimanual ball rotation task may be appropriate for rehabilitation of a movable paretic hand in an early stage of stroke recovery, which should provide motor and sensory input using external stimuli, while the simple motor task may appropriate in a compensatory stage, and should inhibit the ipsilateral activity due to maladaptive plasticity.
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ABSTRACT: Cross-training is a phenomenon related to motor learning, where motor performance of the untrained limb shows improvement in strength and skill execution following unilateral training of the homologous contralateral limb. We used functional MRI to investigate whether motor performance of the untrained limb could be improved using a serial reaction time task according to motor sequential learning of the trained limb, and whether these skill acquisitions led to changes in brain activation patterns. We recruited 20 right-handed healthy subjects, who were randomly allocated into training and control groups. The training group was trained in performance of a serial reaction time task using their non-dominant left hand, 40 minutes per day, for 10 days, over a period of 2 weeks. The control group did not receive training. Measurements of response time and percentile of response accuracy were performed twice during pre- and post-training, while brain functional MRI was scanned during performance of the serial reaction time task using the untrained right hand. In the training group, prominent changes in response time and percentile of response accuracy were observed in both the untrained right hand and the trained left hand between pre- and post-training. The control group showed no significant changes in the untrained hand between pre- and post-training. In the training group, the activated volume of the cortical areas related to motor function (i.e., primary motor cortex, premotor area, posterior parietal cortex) showed a gradual decrease, and enhanced cerebellar activation of the vermis and the newly activated ipsilateral dentate nucleus were observed during performance of the serial reaction time task using the untrained right hand, accompanied by the cross-motor learning effect. However, no significant changes were observed in the control group. Our findings indicate that motor skills learned over the 2-week training using the trained limb were transferred to the opposite homologous limb, and motor skill acquisition of the untrained limb led to changes in brain activation patterns in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum.Neural Regeneration Research 03/2013; 8(7):639-46. · 0.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Complex skill learning at a joint initiates competition between its representation in the primary motor cortex (M1) and that of the neighboring untrained joint. This process of representational plasticity has been mapped by cortically-evoking simple movements. We investigated, following skill learning at a joint, 1) whether comparable processes of representational plasticity are observed when mapping is based on volitionally produced complex movements and 2) the consequence on the skill of the adjacent untrained joint. Twenty-four healthy subjects were assigned to either finger- or elbow-skill training or no-training control group. At pretest and posttest, subjects performed complex skill movements at finger, elbow and ankle concurrent with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to define learning and allow mapping of corresponding activation-based representations in M1. Skill following both finger- and elbow- training transferred to the ankle (remote joint) (p = 0.05 and 0.05); however, finger training did not transfer to the elbow and elbow training did not transfer to the finger. Following finger training, location of the trained finger representation showed a trend (p = 0.08) for medial shift towards the representation of adjacent untrained elbow joint; the change in intensity of the latter representation was associated with elbow skill (Spearman's ρ = -0.71, p = 0.07). Following elbow training, the trained elbow representation and the adjacent untrained finger representation increased their overlap (p = 0.02), which was associated with finger skill (Spearman's ρ = -0.83, p = 0.04). Thus, our pilot study reveals comparable processes of representational plasticity with fMRI mapping of complex skill movements as have been demonstrated with cortically-evoked methods. Importantly, these processes may limit the degree of transfer of skill between trained and adjacent untrained joints. These pilot findings that await confirmation in large-scale studies have significant implications for neuro-rehabilitation. For instance, techniques, such as motor cortical stimulation, that can potentially modulate processes of representational plasticity between trained and adjacent untrained representations, may optimize transfer of skill.Brain Imaging and Behavior 03/2012; 6(3):437-53. · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hand motor tasks are frequently used to assess impaired motor function in neurology and neurorehabilitation. Assessments can be varied by means of hand laterality, i.e. unimanual or bimanual performance, as well as by means of task complexity, i.e. different degrees ranging from simple to complex sequence tasks. The resulting functional activation in human primary motor cortex (M1) has been studied intensively by traditional neuroimaging methods. Previous studies using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) investigated simple hand motor tasks. However, it is unknown whether fNIRS can also detect changes in response to increasing task complexity. Our hypothesis was to show that fNIRS could detect activation changes in relation to task complexity in uni- and bimanual tasks. Sixteen healthy right-handed subjects performed five finger-tapping tasks: unimanual left and right, simple and complex tasks as well as bimanual complex tasks. We found significant differences in oxy-hemoglobin (O(2)Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (HHb) concentration in the right hemisphere over M1. Largest O(2)Hb concentration changes were found during complex (0.351+/-0.051 micromol/l) and simple (0.275+/-0.054 micromol/l) right hand tasks followed by bimanual (0.249+/-0.047 micromol/l), complex (0.154+/-0.034 micromol/l) and simple (0.110+/-0.034 micromol/l) left hand tasks. Largest HHb concentration changes were found during bimanual (-0.138+/-0.006 micromol/l) tasks, followed by simple right hand (-0.12+/-0.016 micromol/l), complex left (-0.0875+/-0.007 micromol/l), complex right (-0.0863+/-0.005 micromol/l) and simple left (-0.0674+/-0.005 micromol/l) hand tasks. We report for the first time that fNIRS detects oxygenation changes in relation to task complexity during finger-tapping. The study aims to contribute to the establishment of fNIRS as a neuroimaging method to assess hand motor function in clinical settings where traditional neuroimaging methods cannot be applied.NeuroImage 04/2009; 46(4):1105-13. · 6.25 Impact Factor