Training and Detraining Effects on Functional Fitness after a Multicomponent Training in Older Women

Research Centre in Physical Activity Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
Gerontology (Impact Factor: 3.06). 06/2008; 55(1):41-8. DOI: 10.1159/000140681
Source: PubMed


Several studies have been carried out in order to evaluate the potential influence of increased physical activity on the health, biological ageing and functional ability of the elderly. However, only limited information is available on the effects of multicomponent training and detraining on functional performance.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 8-month multicomponent training and 3-month detraining on the functional fitness of older women.
Fifty-seven women were randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 32; 68.4 +/- 2.93 years) or a control group (n = 25; 69.6 +/- 4.20 years). The training program consisted of 2 sessions per week of aerobic, strength, balance and flexibility exercises. The functional fitness test battery was performed to assess the physical parameters associated with independent functioning in older adults.
No significant changes were observed in body mass index and cardiovascular endurance as a result of the exercise training. Training induced significant (p < 0.05) improvements in chair stand (27.3%), arm curl (17.4%), chair sit-and-reach (17.4%), up-and-go (11%) and back scratch (14.5%) tests. However, both upper and lower body strength and upper and lower flexibility declined significantly after detraining in the exercise group.
The results of this study highlight the negative effects of interrupting exercise on several physical parameters of functional fitness.

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Available from: Jorge Mota, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "However, to retain these benefits induced by regular exercise, participants must remain physically active throughout life. In fact, several studies have reported that detraining caused a partial loss of benefits induced by exercise and even a greater decline to a level below pre-training values (Toraman & Ayceman 2005; Carvalho et al. 2009; Kalapotharakos et al. 2010). To the best of our knowledge, this topic has received no attention in disabled populations in spite of major barriers to physical activity for this group (Mahy et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have reported that obese people with trisomy 21 suffer from low-grade systemic inflammation. A recent study has found that aerobic training reduced inflammation in obese women with Down syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, the study reported in this paper is the first to determine for how long these effects were maintained after completion of the programme. Twenty premenopausal obese women (18-30 years old) with Down syndrome volunteered for this study. Eleven were randomly assigned to the intervention group and performed a 10-week aerobic training programme, 3 sessions per week, consisting of warming-up followed by treadmill exercise (30-40 min) at a work intensity of 55-65% of peak heart rate and a cooling-down period. The control group included 9, age, sex and BMI matched women with Down syndrome that did not perform any training programme. Fat mass percentage and distribution were measured. Plasma level of IL-6 and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were monitored. Time-course changes for these outcomes were assessed at pre- and post-intervention. Further, they were re-evaluated at 1, 3 and 6 months after completion of the programme. Three months after completion of the programme, plasma levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP were significantly increased. Up to 6 months later, both fat mass percentage and waist circumference (WC) were significantly increased. Furthermore, physical fitness was also impaired in the intervention group. No changes were observed in the control group. A 3-month detraining period significantly impaired chronic inflammation in obese women with DS.
    Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 11/2013; 58(9). DOI:10.1111/jir.12096 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    • "These studies suggested that better results on lipid profile can be found after a multicomponent exercise program compared to others. Therefore, it seems reasonable to suggest that results from a multicomponent functional fitness test are more appropriate to define training status instead of the evaluation of only one component of physical fitness, like cardiovascular capacity [12,17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension can be generated by a great number of mechanisms including elevated uric acid (UA) that contribute to the anion superoxide production. However, physical exercise is recommended to prevent and/or control high blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between BP and UA and whether this relationship may be mediated by the functional fitness index. All participants (n = 123) performed the following tests: indirect maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), AAHPERD Functional Fitness Battery Test to determine the general fitness functional index (GFFI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), body mass index (BMI) and blood sample collection to evaluate the total-cholesterol (CHOL), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides (TG), uric acid (UA), nitrite (NO2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (T-BARS). After the physical, hemodynamic and metabolic evaluations, all participants were allocated into three groups according to their GFFI: G1 (regular), G2 (good) and G3 (very good). Baseline blood pressure was higher in G1 when compared to G3 (+12% and +11%, for SBP and DBP, respectively, p<0.05) and the subjects who had higher values of BP also presented higher values of UA. Although UA was not different among GFFI groups, it presented a significant correlation with GFFI and VO2max. Also, nitrite concentration was elevated in G3 compared to G1 (140+/-29 muM vs 111+/- 29 muM, for G3 and G1, respectively, p<0.0001). As far as the lipid profile, participants in G3 presented better values of CHOL and TG when compared to those in G1. Taking together the findings that subjects with higher BP had elevated values of UA and lower values of nitrite, it can be suggested that the relationship between blood pressure and the oxidative stress produced by acid uric may be mediated by training status.
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 06/2013; 13(1):44. DOI:10.1186/1471-2261-13-44 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Even though the Cawthorne&Cooksey protocol presents favorable results [15,16], it still lacks exercises for simultaneous management of the proprioceptive and visual information, modification in the base of support, and other motor components. Other studies with multiple-component rehabilitation protocols (balance, flexibility, and strength exercises) have revealed positive results concerning body balance control and the functional capacity of older people [17,18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background There are several protocols designed to treat vestibular disorders that focus on habituation, substitution, adaptation, and compensation exercises. However, protocols that contemplate not only vestibular stimulation but also other components that are essential to the body balance control in older people are rare. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of two vestibular rehabilitation protocols (conventional versus multimodal) on the functional capacity and body balance control of older people with chronic dizziness due to vestibular disorders. Methods/design A randomized, single-blind, controlled clinical trial with a 3 months follow-up period will be performed. The sample will be composed of older individuals with a clinical diagnosis of chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. The subjects will be evaluated at baseline, post-treatment and follow-up. Primary outcomes will be determined in accordance with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (functional capacity) and the Dynamic Gait Index (body balance). Secondary outcomes include dizziness features, functional records, body balance control tests, and psychological information. The older individuals (minimum sample n = 68) will be randomized to either the conventional or multimodal Cawthorne&Cooksey protocols. The protocols will be performed during individual 50-minute sessions, twice a week, for 2 months (a total of 16 sessions). The outcomes of both protocols will be compared according to the intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion Vestibular rehabilitation through the Cawthorne&Cooksey protocol has already proved to be effective. However, the addition of other components related to body balance control has been proposed to improve the rehabilitation of older people with chronic dizziness from vestibular disorders. Trial registration ACTRN12610000018011
    Trials 12/2012; 13(1):246. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-13-246 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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